Out-of-Office Model – the eight Factors and Barriers Controlling the Future of e-working

  • Michal Beno VSM/City University of Seattle
Keywords: e-working; Out-of-Office model; factors and barriers; generations; digital natives and novices


Academics, researchers and managers have struggled for years to identify and describe exactly what constitutes effective e-working and to identify the ideal model of e-working. In the midst of the debate and discussion, some basic concepts seem to have been lost, because, as is evident, there are different definitions of e-working. We have developed a simple basic three-dimensional model of future trends and factors affecting e-working. Each of these three dimensions, namely Technology, Global changes and Generational and demographic changes, is within the control of the individual country, and each one can be developed through appropriate support and guidance. Effective e-working is a matter of developing the ability within each of the three dimensions and then choosing to apply the eight controlling factors and barriers in a balanced way. Our model provides a systematic way of incorporating best practices to overcome concerns and guide organizations through the process of building successful, sustainable and customized e-working programs that meet the demands of a changing workplace.


Arvola, R., Lutsoja, K., Kristjuhan, Ü. & Tint, P. (2017). Telework as an Option to Postpone the Retirement for Ageing People? Safety of Technogenic Environment, Vol. 8, pp. 15-23.
Barna, G. (1996). Generation Next:What you need to Know about today’s Youth. Ventura, California: Regal Books.
Beno, M. (2018a). Transformation of Human Labour from Stone Age to Information Age. Mobile Web and Intelligent Information Systems Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 10995, pp. 205–216.
Beno, M. (2018b). Work Flexibility, Telepresence in the Office for Remote Workers: A Case Study from Austria. Kaenampornpan M., Malaka R., Nguyen D., Schwind N. (eds) Multi-disciplinary Trends in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 11248, pp. 19-31.
Beno, M. (2018c). Managing Telework from an Austrian Manager’s Perspective. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vol. 745, pp. 16-29.
Beno, M. (2018d). An Empirical Study on Teleworking Among Slovakia’s Office-based Academics. IEEE, Conference: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), pp. 164-170.
Beno, M. (2019). Robot Rights in the Era of Robolution and the Acceptance of Robots from the Slovak Citizen’s Perspective. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Robotic and Sensors Environments (ROSE) Proceedings, pp. 150-156.
Beno, M. & Ferencikova, S. (2019). The Future of Work is e-Work. 14th International Workshop on Knowledge Management, pp. 6-20.
Binsfeld, N., Whalley, J. & Pugalis, L. (2016). Competing through e-skills: Luxembourg and its second level digital divide. Retrieved from http://www.studium.lu/downloads/2016_Binsfeld_et_al.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Blackwell, J. & Demerath, P. (2002). Telecommuting in the 21st century: benefits, issues, and a leadership model which will work. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 75-86.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G. & Boon, C. (2005). Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research. Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp 67-94.
Bull, A. (2004). Traffic congestion. The Problem and how to deal with it. Retrieved from https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/37898/LCG2199P_en.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Butz-Widener, B. (2019). Rural towns are leaning into remote work, and it might save them. Retrieved from https://acorn.work/rural-towns-are-leaning-into-remote-work-and-it-might-save-them/, date: 04.18.2020.
Büssing, A. (2002). Teleworking and Quality of Life. Retrieved from http://ce.sharif.ir/courses/89-90/2/ce221-1/resources/root/TELEWORKING-%20INTERNATIONAL%20PERSPECTIVES.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Chui, M., Manyika, J. & Miremadi, M. (2016). Where machines could replace humans-and where they can’t. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/business%20functions/mckinsey%20digital/our%20insights/where%20machines%20could%20replace%20humans%20and%20where%20they%20cant/sector-automation.ashx, date: 04.18.2020.
Clark, M. A. (2000). Teleworking in the Countryside. Home-Based Working in the Information Society. USA: Routledge.
Clear, F. & Dickson, K. (2005). Teleworking Practice in Small and Medium-Sized Firms: Management Style and Worker Autonomy. New Technology, Work and Employment, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 218-233.
Computacenter. (2016). Understanding Digital Natives. Retrieved from https://www.computacenter.com/docs/librariesprovider8/brochures/understanding-digital-natives-research-report-21102016.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Dagnaud, M. (2013). Génération Y. Les jeunes et les réseaux sociaux, de la dérision à la subversion. Paris: Les Presses de Sciences Po.
Datakom. (2016). How slow internet speeds can impact productivity. Retrieved from https://www.datakom.co.uk/2016/07/how-slow-internet-speeds-can-impact-productivity, date: 04.18.2020.
Delery, J. & Shaw, J. (2001). The Strategic Management of People in Work Organizations: Review, Synthesis and Extension. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, Vol. 20, pp. 165-197.
DMRC. (2020). The Impact of Digital Natives on the Future of Business. Retrieved from http://dmresourcecenter.com/unit-1/digital-natives/, date: 04.18.2020.
Douglas, T. M. (2018). How to Know if Your Remote Employee is Really Working. Retrieved from https://teresamdouglas.com/how-to-know-if-your-remote-employee-is-really-working/, date: 04.18.2020.
Frey, C. B. & Osborne, M. A. (2013). The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation? Retrieved from https://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Fuhr, J. P. & Pociask, S. (2011). Braodband and Telecommuting: Helping the U. S. Environment and the Economy. Low Carbon Economy, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 41-47.
Fulton, C., Haplin, E. & Walker, S. (2001). Privacy Meets Home-based eWork. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Assembly on Telework, Helsinki, 12-14 September. Retrieved from http://www.telework2001.fi/FultonHalpinWalker.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Gansky, L. (2012). The Mesh: Why the Future of Business is Sharing. New York: Portfolio Penguin.
Gibbons, B. (2017). Working From Home: The Fantasy vs. The Reality. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/working-from-home-fantasy-vs-reality_b_2835725?guccounter=1, date: 04.18.2020.
Goldsmith, M. (2010). How to Keep Good Employees in a Bad Economy. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2010/02/how-to-keep-good-employees-in, date: 04.18.2020.
Gruen, D. (2017). Technological Change and the Future of Work. Retrieved from https://www.pmc.gov.au/news-centre/domestic-policy/technological-change-and-future-work, date: 04.18.2020.
GWA. (2019). Latest Telecommuting Statistics. Retrieved from https://globalworkplaceanalytics.com/telecommuting-statistics, date: 04.18.2020.
Harrington, S. J. & Ruppel, C. P. (1999). Telecommuting: A test of trust, competing values, and relative advantage. Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions On, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 223-239.
Illegems, V. & Verbeke, A. (2003). Moving towards the virtual workplace: managerial and societal perspectives on telework / Viviane Illegems, Alain Verbeke, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.
IWG. (2019). The IWG Global Workspace Survey. Welcome to Generation Flex - the employee power shift. Retrieved from http://assets.regus.com/pdfs/iwg-workplace-survey/iwg-workplace-survey-2019.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Kowalski, K. B. & Swanson, J. A. (2005). Critical success factors in developing teleworking programs. Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 236-249.
Lee, K-F. (2019). Artificial Intelligence Is Powerful—And Misunderstood. Here’s How We Can Protect Workers. Retrieved from https://time.com/5501056/artificial-intelligence-protect-workers/, date: 04.18.2020.
Mandl, I., Curtarelli, M., Riso, S., Vargas, O. & Gerogiannis, E. (2015). New forms of Employment. Retrieved from https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_publication/field_ef_document/ef1461en.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Marks, G. (2018). Businesses claim it’s hard to hire ‘good people’. The solution is pretty simple. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/jul/22/small-business-hiring-good-people-wages-raise, date: 04.18.2020.
Mercer, (2018). Global Talent Trends Study. Unlocking Growth in the Human Age. Retrieved from https://www.fsgplus.com/fsgplus/news/hr_insight/201805/P020180515513270762947.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Mitan, A. (2014). Digital Natives Coming of Age: Challenges for Managers. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 335-354.
Moskowitz, R. (2006). Tunnel woes shine light on telecommuting technology. Retrieved from https://www.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/2006/08/07/story6.html?page, date: 04.18.2020.
Nielsen. (2015). Green Generation: Millennials Say Sustainability Is a Shopping Priority. Retrieved from https://www.nielsen.com/tw/en/insights/article/2015/green-generation-millennials-say-sustainability-is-a-shopping-priority/, date: 04.18.2020.
Noble, S. M., Haytko, D. L. & Phillips, J. (2009). What drives college-age Generation Y consumers? Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, No. 6, pp. 617-628.
OECD. (2016). New Skills for the Digital Economy. Retrieved from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/new-skills-for-the-digital-economy_5jlwnkm2fc9x-en;jsessionid=Y91LEA_59K8vADF9GhaaeZyn.ip-10-240-5-36, date: 04.18.2020.
Ohio University. (2020). Telecommuting Can Save Businesses Money. Retrieved from https://onlinemasters.ohio.edu/blog/how-telecommuting-can-save-businesses-money/, date: 04.18.2020.
OTA. (2018). Cyber Incident & Breach Trends Report. Retrieved from https://www.internetsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/ota_cyber_incident_trends_report_jan2018-2.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Pyöriä, P. (2011). Managing telework: risks, fears and rules. Management Research Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 386-399.
Radu, S. (2018). How Soon Will You Be Working From Home? Retrieved from https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2018-02-16/telecommuting-is-growing-but-still-not-unanimously-embraced, date: 04.18.2020.
Reinicke, C. (2018). The biggest cybersecurity risk to US businesses is employee negligence, study says. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/21/the-biggest-cybersecurity-risk-to-us-businesses-is-employee-negligence-study-says.html, date: 04.18.2020.
Robbins, J. (2018). Is Telecommuting the Future? 5 Reasons why it should be. Retrieved from https://www.mightycall.com/blog/is-telecommuting-the-future-5-reasons-why-it-should-be/, date: 04.18.2020.
Robèrt, M. & Börjesson, M. (2006). Company Incentives and Tools for Promoting Telecommuting. Environment and Behaviour, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 521-549.
Schiff, F. W. (1979). Working at Home Can Save Gasoline. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/1979/09/02/working-at-home-can-save-gasoline/ffa475c7-d1a8-476e-8411-8cb53f1f3470/?noredirect=on, date: 04.18.2020.
Schilling, S. L. (1999). Implementing a successful telework program. Compensation and Benefits Management, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 58.
Shafizadeh, K. R., Niemeier, D. A., Mokhtarian, P. L. & Salomon, I. (2007). Costs and Benefits of Home Based Telecommuting: A Monte Carlo Simulation Model Incorporating Telecommuter, Employer, and Public Sector Perspectives. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 12-25.
Siemens. (2009). White Paper. Get Lean and Green Fast with Telecommuting. Retrieved from http://www.crmxchange.com/uploadedFiles/White_Papers/PDF/Get_Lean_and_Green_Fast_with_Telecommuting.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Simitis, S. (1986). The Juridification of Labour Relations. Comparative Labor Law, Vol. 7, No. 93, pp. 93-142.
Smith, Ch. (2019). How mobile technology can help companies manage their remote workforce. Retrieved from https://knowtechie.com/how-mobile-technology-can-help-companies-manage-their-remote-workforce/, date: 04.18.2020.
Sutherland, A. & Thompson, B. (2003). Kidfluence: The Marketer’s Guide to Understanding and Reaching Generation Y -- Kids, Tweens and Teens. New York: McGraw Hill.
Swift, P. & Stephens, A. (2014). Homeworking: helping businesses cut costs and reduce their carbon footprint. Retrieved from https://www.carbontrust.com/media/507270/ctc830-homeworking.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Talwark, R. & Hancock, T. (2010). The Shape of Jobs to Come. Retrieved from http://fastfuture.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/FastFuture_Shapeofjobstocome_FullReport1.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Tore, N. (2018). Why Employee Retention Should Be a Talent Acquisition Responsibility. Retrieved from https://theundercoverrecruiter.com/employee-retention-responsibility/, date: 04.18.2020.
Ulrich, D. (1993). Profiling organizational competitiveness: Cultivating capabilities. Human Resource Planning, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 1-17.
Ussem, J. (2017). When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/11/when-working-from-home-doesnt-work/540660/, date: 04.18.2020.
Valenduc, G. & Vendramin, P. (2016). Work in the digital economy: sorting the old from the new. Retrieved from http://ftu-namur.org/fichiers/Work_in_the_digital_economy-ETUI2016-3-EN.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Vasel, K. (2017). Working from home is really having a moment. Retrieved from https://money.cnn.com/2017/06/21/pf/jobs/working-from-home/index.html, date: 04.18.2020.
WEF. (2018). The Future of Jobs Report 2018. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2018.pdf, date: 04.18.2020.
Ye, L. R. (2012). Telecommuting: Implementation for Success. International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 3, No. 15, pp. 20-29.
Yle.fi. (2019). Telecommuting may keep small towns viable. Retrieved from https://yle.fi/uutiset/osasto/news/telecommuting_may_keep_small_towns_viable/10727842, date: 04.18.2020.
Zandt, D. (2010). Share This! How You Will Change the World with Social Networking. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Business Administration and Business Economics