Structure of Sown Areas and its Significance in the Steppe Zone of Ukraine

  • Stanislav Holoborodko Izmail State University of Humanities
Keywords: agriculture; agricultural landscapes; yield; winter wheat; corn

Abstract

The way of transformation of old-age natural grasslands of the southern Steppe into
anthropogenic agricultural landscapes is shown, which led to a significant change in the structure of
land use in Ukraine. Due to a significant decrease in the acreage of forage crops in recent years, there
has been an increase in the acreage of corn, sunflower, soybean and winter rape, that is, cereals and
industrial crops that are in demand on the world market. Prerequisites that did not contribute to the
intensive development of agriculture in the southern part of the Steppe zone at the end of the XX and
early XXI centuries are associated with extremely high plowing of existing agricultural landscapes and
their degradation. The return to no science-based farming systems, while reducing the area of natural
steppe landscapes, has led to the creation of an unstable state of agricultural lands. This is also due to
the negative impact of regional climate change. The systematic expansion of arable land was the
beginning of a significant anthropogenic impact on existing agricultural landscapes. Therefore, the
prerequisites created over the past two centuries for the intensive development of crop production,
horticulture and viniculture have led to the formation of anthropogenic agricultural landscapes. The
main direction of scientific and economic activity of agricultural enterprises in the southern region
should be to optimize the structure of sown areas with optimal participation of perennial grasses. This
will help to strengthen the feed base for livestock, reduce the mineralization of humus in the soils and
improve their physical and physic-chemical properties, first of all, a significant increase in the content
of carbon and mineral and easily hydrolyzable nitrogen compounds and increase crop yields. Weather
and climatic conditions of the Steppe zone indicate a significant instability of natural humidification
and the growth of evaporation and lack of moisture supply, especially in mid-dry and dry on
precipitation years. Therefore, the development and implementation of landscape and ecological
farming systems in the southern region will contribute to ensuring food security in Ukraine.

Author Biography

Stanislav Holoborodko, Izmail State University of Humanities

PhD, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor

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Published
2020-08-19
Section
Local Communities-Diachrony and Synchrony