Insurgency in Nigeria: The Prognosis and its Effects on the Nigerian Politics

  • Mevayerore Daniel Igbini Delta State University Abraka
Keywords: Nigeria; Politics; Insurgency; Crimes; Civil-unrests

Abstract

Since Nigeria returned to civil rule in May 1999 after several years of military rule, the nation hasn’t enjoyed peaceful moment due to the activities of insurgent groups’ and criminal gangs such as Boko Haram, ISWAP, bandits, armed robbers, Kidnappers and Fulani herdsmen. In light of these ugly and perturbing scenarios this study examined the causative factors of insurgency, as well as crimes in Nigeria. The study, thus, relates this to corruption, nepotism, ethnic consciousness, mediocracy, marginalisation, extreme social deprivation and religious extremism. The study considers the effects of these on the nation’s politics, as the prognoses if these challenges had persisted longer than expected. To achieve this, the study adopted historical research design which is qualitative and explorative in nature, implying that data used in the study were derived from Secondary sources, via books, journal publications, government official documents, internet sources, among others. The study adopted Frustration-Aggression and Relative Deprivation theories to examine the causative factors or reasons why people resort to insurgency, crimes and other forms of unrests as alternative means to register their grievances against the government. Useful recommendations in the form of articulated policy frameworks were presented to stem this ugly trend.

Author Biography

Mevayerore Daniel Igbini, Delta State University Abraka

Doctoral Candidate, Department of Political Science

References

[1] Abolurin, A. (2011). Terrorism: Nigerian and Global Dimensions. Ibadan Gems Unique Multiventures.
[2] Abdu, A.,& Shehu, S. S. (2019). The Implication of Boko Haram Insurgency on Women and Girls in North East Nigeria. Journal of Public Administration and Social Welfare Research, 4(1), 9-21.
[3] Achodo, C. C. (2019). Boko Haram insurgency: A rethink in strategic and tactical response toward resolving the crisis. Special Report, Nextier Issues, 23 January.
[4] Adewumi, A. (2014). The Battle of the Minds: the Insurgency and Counter Insurgency in Northern Nigeria. West Africa Insight, May 2014 Boko Haram
[5] Adepelumi, P. A. (2018). Psychological Consequences of Boko Haram Insurgency for Nigerian Children. Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfilments of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosopher, College of Social and Behavioural Science, Walden University. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations
[6] Adishi, E. & Oluka, N. L. (2018). Climate Change, Insecurity and Conflict; Issues and Probable Roadmap for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria, International Journal of Social Sciences and Management Research, 4(8), 12-21.
[7] Akinwotu, E. & Sahabi, H. (2020, June 3). Waves of ‘bandit’ massacresrupture rural life in north-west Nigeria. The Guardian Nigeria, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/wavws-of-bandit-massacres-rupture-rural-life-in-north-west-nigeria
[8] Akubo, A. A.,& Okolo, B. I. (2019). Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria: Implications for national security and restorative justice. Accord, https://www.accord.org.za/ajcr-issues/boko-haram-insurgency-in-nigeria/
[9] Aljazeera News. (2018, February 28). 110 Nigeria Schoolgirls still missing after attack: Minister said. Aljazeera Media Network. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dapchi_schoolgirls_kidnapping
[10]Amalu, N. S. (2015). Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on Human Security in Nigeria. Global Journal of Social Sciences, 14:35-42.
[11] Bilyaminu, M., Iya, I. B., & Purokayo, S. G. (2017). Analysis of the Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on Education on Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection, 5(6), 45-56.
[12] Chukwu, C.,& Chiemeka, O. (2015). Unemployment, Proliferation of Small Arms and the Effects of Democracy in Nigeria’s Niger Delta: The Way Forward. International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (IJARSC) 5(4), (May 2015)
[13]Chukwurah, D. C., Eme, O.,& Ogbeje, E. N. (2015). Implication of Boko Haram Terrorism on Northern Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Science, 6(3), 371-379.
[14] Curta, S. D. (2006). A New Type of Insurgency: A case study of the Resistance in Iraq. Graduate Thesis and Dissertation. Scholar Commons, University of South Florida.
[15] Dunn, G. (2018). The impact of the Boko Haram insurgency in Northeast Nigeria on childhood wasting: a double-difference study. Conflict and Health Journal, 12(1), 1-12 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article/PMC578
[16] Galula, D. (1964). Counter-Insurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. London.
[17] Gourley, S.M. (2012). Linkages between Boko Haram and Al Qaeda: A Potential Deadly Synergy. Global Security Studies, 3(3), 1-14.
[18] Hassan, M. (2014). Boko Haram Insurgency and the Spate of Insecurity in Nigeria: Manifestation of Governance Crises. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(18), 9-18.
[19] International Organisation for Migration, IOM (2015). Displacement tracking matrix, Round VI Report, October 2015.
[20] Iyekekpolo, W. O. (2019). The political process of Boko Haram insurgency onset: a political relevance model. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 12(4), 673-692 https://doi:10.1080/17539153.2019.1617654
[21] Kalu, E., Ajuzie, H. O.,& Chukwu, C. C. (2018). Insecurity Challenges in Nigeria: Human Security Option as a Panacea. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(5), 1-9.
[22] Lake, E. (2018). Axis of Evil: Boko Haram’s Bin Laden Connection. November 5. https://www.thedailybeast.com/boko-harams-bin-laden-connection
[23] Liolio, S. (2014). Rethinking Insurgency: A Case Study of Boko Haram in Nigeria. A Thesis Submitted to the European Peace University, Austria.
[24] Mbombo, J. K. (2015). Winning Boko Haram with Restorative Justice. Conflict Studies Quarterly, Special Issue, pp. 77-91.
[25] Michalos, A. C. (2014). (ed.) Relative Deprivation Theory. Encylopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%F978-98-94-007-0753_245
[26] Moore, R. S. (2007). The Basics of Counterinsurgency. Small Wars Journal, pp. 1-24.
[27] Muzan, A. O. (2014). Insurgency in Nigeria: Addressing the causes as part of the solution. African Human Rights Law Journal, 1(13), 217-243. www.sa flii.org/za/journals/AHRLJ/2014/13.html
[28] Nakhleh, E. (2014). Nigerian Terrorism: Causes and Solutions. https://lobelog.com/nigerian-terrorism-causes-and-solutions/
[29] Nationalia News. (2020, July 5). 50 years after devastating Biafran war, Iabo grievances resurface again. https://www.nationalia.inf/new/10664/50-years-after-devastating-biafran-war-igbo-grievances-resurface-again
[30] Nte, N.D. (2011). Kidnapping, Hostage Taking and National Security Threats in Nigeria: A Synopsis. Mustang Journal of Business and Ethics(2), 57-70
[31] Olamilekan, A. O. (2014). A Perusal Analyses on Boko Haram Crisis in Northern Nigeria and its Implication on Educational Psychology of School Children and Teachers. Journal of Education and Human Development, 3(2), 361-380.
[32] Oluka, N. L. & Igwe, E. O. (2020). National Strategic Mechanism and Prevention of Violent Extremism: A Perspective from Nigeria.Journal of Political Science and Leadership Research, 6(1), 15-30.
[33] Ordu, G. E. (2015). Kidnapping, Security Challenges and Obstacles to the Control of Hostage Taking in Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Art and Social Sciences, 8(2)
[34] Pustay, J. S. (1965). Counter-Insurgency Warfare. New Work.
[35] Sahara Reporters (2018, March 2). Abducted Dapchi Girls in Boko Haram town in Yobe. Sahara Reporters Inc. https://www.saharareporters.com
[36] Shaibu, S. S., Salleh, M. A., & Shebu, A. Y. (2015). The Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on Nigerian National Security. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5(6), 254-266
[37] Smith, H. J., Pettigrew, T. F., Pippin, G. M. & Bialosiewicz, S. (2015). Advances in Relative Deprivation Theory and Research: A meta-Analytic Critique of Relative Deprivation. Journal of Social Justice Research, 28(1), 1-80.
[38] Tayo, S. & Mba, F. (2017, November 9). Calls for Biafran Independence Return in South East Nigeria. Chatham House, https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/calls-biafra-independence-return-south-east-nigeria#
[39] Teasley, D. (2020). What is Relative Deprivation? In Relative Deprivation in Psychology: Theory & Definition, Study.com. https://study.com/academy/lesson/relative-deprivation-in-psychology-theory-definition.tml.
[40] Ukpong-Umo, R. E. (2016). Insecurity in Nigeria and the challenge of nationhood. Nigerian Journal of Rural Sociology, 16(3), 64-69 https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/287478/files/178.pdf
[41]United States Department of Defense. (2007). Joint Publication 1-02 Department of Defense. Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (PDF), JP 1-02.
[42] Zenn, J. (2017). Demystifying AL Qaeda in Nigeria: Cases from Boko Haram’s Funding, Launch of Jihad and Suicide Bombings.Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(6), 173-189.
Published
2020-09-24
Section
Estudentiana (Students, MA & PhD Students)