Effect of Sustainable Marketing Strategies on Consumption of Beer Brands in Anambra State


  • Cosmas Nwankwo University of KwaZulu Natal
  • Prof. Macdonald


This study examined the effect of sustainable marketing strategies on the consumption of beer brands in Anambra State. The study used a positivistic paradigm and survey research design. The study's sample was Anambra State beer brand consumers. Using Cochran's formula, a sample size of 384 branded beer consumers in Anambra State was determined. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using regression analysis to test the hypothesis at the 0.05 level of significance. The results of this study reveal that sustainable products, followed by sustainable price, sustainable distribution and sustainable promotion, have a significant and positive effect on the consumption of beer brands in Anambra State. The study conclude that sustainable marketing mix strategies significantly and positively affect the consumption of beer brands. However, beer brewing companies in Nigeria are implored to employ a more nuanced and re-conceptualised marketing mix strategies to better balance social, economic, and environmental factors throughout the product life cycle. Creating eco-friendly products that comply with environmental standards, using recyclable and reusable packaging to reduce pollution, and promoting water and energy efficiency are vital to enhancing the effect of sustainable marketing on beer consumption. Implications and future research direction for sustainable marketing of beer are highlighted.


Akenji, L. (2015). Sustainable consumption and production. United Nations Environment Programme.

Alabo, R.L & Anyasor, O.M (2020). Green marketing and sustainability of breweries in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Innovation Research,8 (8), 19-48

Bergman, M., Bergman, Z., & Berger, L. (2017). An empirical exploration, typology, and definition of corporate sustainability. Sustainability, 9(5), 753. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050753

Borden, N.H., (1964). The concept of the marketing mix. Journal of Advertising Research, 4 (2), 2–7.

Carley, S & Yahng L (2018). Willingness-to pay for sustainable beer. PLoS ONE 13(10): e0204917. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0204917

Danciu, V. (2013). The contribution of sustainable marketing to sustainable development. Management & Marketing, 8(2), 385–399.

Eisembach, S. Schiere, D. Trilling & Von Florow, P. (2014). Sustainable project finance: The adoption of the equator principle and shareholders’ value affects. Business Strategy and the Environment, 23(6), 375-394.

Esen, O., & Bayrak, M. (2017). Does more energy consumption support economic growth in net energy-importing countries? Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, 22 (42), 75 – 98.

Fan, H., & Zeng, L. (2011). Implementation of green marketing strategy in China: A study of the green food industry. M.Sc. Thesis, University of GAVLE, China.

Fuxman, L, Mohr, I, Mahmoud, A.B. & Grigoriou, B (2022). The new 3Ps of sustainability marketing: The case of fashion Leonora. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 31, 384–396.

Garg, S. & Sharma, V. (2017). Green marketing: An emerging approach to sustainable development, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Research, 12(2); 177-184

Gomes, J.P.L., & Nogueira, S.F.M. (2020). The impact of sustainable marketing techniques adoption on the global marketing strategy in car dealers from district of Porto – Northern Portugal. Journal of Research in Marketing, 11(3), 887 – 895.

Gupta, N., Agarwal, M., Garg, P. & Sharma, J.K. (2021). Sustainable pricing and revenue optimisation for growing business and economies. Journal of Revenue Pricing Management, 20, 89–90

Hawken, P. (2007). Blessed unrest: how the largest movement in the world came into being and why no one saw it coming. Viking, New York, p. 172.

Hashem, T.N., & Al-Rifai, N.A. (2011). The influence of applying green marketing mix by chemical industries companies in three Arab States in West Asia on consumer's mental image. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(3), 92-101.

Hsiang-Ke, C. (2007). A structure of the consumption function. Journal of Economic Methodology, 14(2), 227 – 248.

Hines, H. (2020). How Beer Brewers are Embracing Sustainability. SevenFiftyDaily. https://daily.sevenfifty.com/how-beer-brewers-are-embracing-sustainability/ [Accessed 24 November]

Kelly, J (2012). How to Find Eco-friendly Products. 29 August HowStuffWorks. https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/eco-friendly-products.htm [Accessed 25 November 2022]

Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2014). Principles of marketing (5th ed), Pearson Prentice Hall, 570.

Krunal, T. Pooja, T. & Varidana, (2018). Sustainable marketing strategies: Creating business value by meet consumer expectation. International Journal of Management, Economic and Social Science. 7(2), 186 - 205.

Kumar, A. & Meenakshi, N. (2013). Marketing management, (2nd ed), Vikas publishing House PVT Ltd. E28.

Kumar, P., & Ghodeswar, B.M. (2015). Factors affecting consumers’ green product purchase decisions. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 33(3), 330-347.

Lao, K. (2014). Research on mechanism of consumer innovativeness influencing green consumption behavior. Nankai Business Review International, 5(2), 211 - 224.

Macharia, R.W., Kibera, F.N., Munyoki, J.N., & Kinoti, M.W. (2017). Relationship between green marketing practices and customer satisfaction in the soft drink industry in Nairobi Kenya. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(6), 69 – 81.

Machová, R., Ambrus, R., Zsigmond, T., & Bakó, F. (2022). The impact of green marketing on consumer behavior in the market of palm oil products. Sustainability, 14, 1364.

Martin, D., & Schouten, J. (2012). Sustainable marketing. Peason.

Muma, O., Nyaoga, B., Matwere, r. B., &nyambega, e. (2014). Green supply chain management and environmental performance among tea processing firms in kericho county- Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 2(5), 270- 276

Nnabuko, I.O. (2016). Marketing in Nigeria at cross Wads: Going forward, Nsukka UNN Senate Ceremonial Committee.

Nwankwo, C.A., & Kanyangale, M.I. (2022). The evolution from pre-academic marketing thought to the new paradigm of entrepreneurial marketing. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 21(2), 1-15.

Ottman, J.A. (2011). The new rules of green marketing: strategies, tools, and inspiration for sustainable branding. Greenleaf.

Owonte, L H. (2020). Marketing strategies and the performance of automobile dealers in South-South, Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University of Uyo; Nigeria.

Owonte, L.H., & Etuk, S. (2020). Sustainable marketing strategy and corporate performance of the electronic marketing firms in Rivers State. International Journal of Management and Marketing Systems, 13(8), 108 – 119.

Papadas, K., Avlonitis, G., & Carrigan, M. (2017). Green marketing orientation: conceptualisation, scale development and validation. Journal Business of Research 80, 236 - 246.

Peattie, K. (1995). Environmental Marketing Management: Meeting the Green Challenge. Pitman.

Pomering, A. (2017). Marketing for sustainability: Extending the conceptualisation of the marketing mix to drive value for individuals and society at large. Australasian Marketing Journal, 25(2), 157– 165.

Prakash, A. (2002). Green marketing, public policy and managerial strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment, 11, 285 – 297.

Ribeiro, H. (2017). The importance of green marketing for Portuguese companies in the footwear industry. Master’s Degree Dissertation. ISCTE. Retrieved from: https://repositorio.iscteiul.pt/bitstream/10071/15213/1/helena_silva_ ribeiro_diss_mestrado.pf

Sharma, Y. (2011). Changing consumer behaviour with respect to green marketing: A case study of consumer durables and retailing. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(4), 152-162.

Shil, P. (2012). Evolution and future of environmental marketing. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Management Review, 1(3), 74 - 81.

Shirsavar, H.A., & Fashkhamy, F. (2013). Green marketing: A new paradigm to gain competitive advantage in contemporary business. Trends in Advanced Science and Engineering, 7(1), 12-18.

Simão, L., & Lisboa, A. (2017). Green Marketing and Green Brand – The Toyota Case. Procedia – Manufacturing, 12, 183 - 194.

Singh, P.B., & Pandey, K.K. (2012). Green marketing: Policies and practices for sustainable development. Integral Review, 5(1), 22-30.

Staples, A.J., Reeling, C.J., Widmar, N.J.O., Lusk, J.L. (2020). Marketing Sustainable Beer. Purdue Agricultural Economics Report. https://ag.purdue.edu/commercialag/home/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/PAER-2020-16.pdf

Solvalier, I. (2010). Green marketing strategies case study about ICA group AB. M.Sc. Thesis, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.

Sun, Y., Garrett, T. C., & Kim, K. H. (2016). Do Confucian principles enhance sustainable marketing and customer equity? Journal of Business Research 69(9), 3772 – 3779.

The UN Global Compact Accenture (2013). The UN Global Compact-Accenture CEO Study on sustainability. Available at: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/library/451. Retrieved on the 28th October, 2022.

Tseng, S.C., & Hung, S.W. (2013). A framework identifying the gaps between customers' expectations and their perceptions in green products. Journal of Cleaner Production, 59, 174-184.

Yazdanifard, R., & Mercy E.Y. (2011). The impact of green marketing on consumer satisfaction and environmental safety. The 2011 International Conference of Computer Communication and Management Proceeding of CSIT, Vol. 5, IACSIT Press, Singapore

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). (2000). Measuring eco-efficiency: A guide to reporting company performance. Geneva.

Yusuf, R. (2020). Effect of green distribution on the performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya, Journal of Business and Management, 22(4), 1.




How to Cite

Nwankwo, C., & Kanyangale, M. (2023). Effect of Sustainable Marketing Strategies on Consumption of Beer Brands in Anambra State. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica, 19(2), 188–205. Retrieved from https://dj.univ-danubius.ro/index.php/AUDOE/article/view/2291



Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth