Stakeholder Agility As An Enabler of Strategy Implementation: Evidence from the Zimbabwe Public Tertiary Education InstitutionsInstitutions


  • Nancy Matshe University of Zimbabwe


The full value of any strategic objective is achieved through effective strategy implementation. However, globally, strategy implementation is arguably the most significant drawback of the strategic management process, with failure rates as high as 90%. This article is aimed at determining the extent to which stakeholder agility contributes to successful strategy implementation in public tertiary education institutions in Zimbabwe, so that, they may contribute meaningfully to the socio-economic development of the nation. The study was motivated by the lack of prior research on the nexus between stakeholder engagement and strategy implementation in public education.  Data was analysed from 486 questionnaires that were randomly distributed to the senior management of tertiary education institutions. Correlations, and regression analyses techniques were used to determine the extent to which stakeholder agility predicts strategy implementation. The results indicated that external stakeholder agility positively influences successful strategy implementation, whilst internal stakeholder agility does not. The study provides guidance to tertiary education institutions on enhancing strategy implementation through external stakeholder agility.  This paper also provides evidence in the African context on the reduction of the strategy implementation failure through stakeholder agility practices relevant to the public education sector. 


Aghina, W., De Smet, A., Lackey, G., Lurie, M. & Murarka, M. (2018). Organisational Evolution: How Digital Disruption Enforces Organisational Agility. Mckinsey Report October (2018), Mckensy and Company.

Andrews, R., Benyon, M.J. & Genc, E. (2017). Strategy Implementation Style and Public Service Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity. Administrative Sciences vol. 7, no.1.

Barham, H., Dabic, M., Daim, T. & Shifrer, D. (2020). The role of management support for the implementation of open innovation practices in firms. Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).

Bhimavarapu, S.R., Kim, S.Y., & Jie Xiong. (2020). Towards More Effective Strategy Execution: The Role of Leadership and Other Key Components. Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 19-21.

Brüggen, A., Doelman, M., & Joshi, A. (2020). The Effect of Dynamic Capabilities on Business Unit Performance and Digital Business Strategy. Working paper, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

Brüggen, A., Doleman, M. & Joshi, A. (2021). An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Strategy Implementation Actions on Digital Business Strategy. Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2021-01-05. University of Hawai ScholarSpace.

Bryman, A. & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods. Revised Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Buffone, P. (2021). Agility: An Essential Element of Leadership for an Evolving Educational Landscape. Science Application Forum, FACETS 6, 2021.

Candido, C.J.F. & Santos, S.P. (2019). Implementation Obstacles and Strategy Implementation Failure. Baltic Journal of Management, Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 39-57.

De Oliveira, C.A., Carneiro, J., & Esteves, F. (2019). Conceptualizing and Measuring the Strategy Execution Construct. Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 105 (C), pp. 333-344.

De Smet, A. (2018). The Keys to Organisational Agility. People and Organizational Performance December 2015, Mckensy and Company.

Dube, N.M. & Xie, S. (2018). The Development of Technical and Vocational Education in Zimbabwe. Journal of progressive Research in Social Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1.

Galpin, T.J. (2018). Realising Your Strategy Potential: A Seven Step Program for Effective Execution. Strategy and Leadership, vol. 46 no. 6, pp. 35-43.

Goromonzi, W.O. (2016). Organizational Culture, Strategy Implementation and Commercial Bank Performance in Zimbabwe. International Review of Management and Marketing, vol. 6, pp. 307-316.

Greer, C.R., Lusch, R.F. & Hitt, M.A. (2017). A Service Perspective for Human Capital Resources: A Critical Base for Strategy Implementation. Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 31, no.2, pp. 137-158.

Guruwo, P.T. & Chiguvi, D. (2019). The Effectiveness of Strategy Implementation on Organisational Performance: A Case Study of Clothing Retail Outlets in Zimbabwe. European Journal of Business and Management, vol. 9, no.9.

Guthrie, K. M. (2019). Challenges to Higher Education’s Most Essential Purpose Issue Brief, April 9, 2019, Ithaka.

Higgins, J. M. (2005). The Eight ‘S’s of Successful Strategy Execution. Journal of Change Management, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3-13.

Hitt, M.A, Ireland, R. & Hoskisson, E. (2017). Strategic Management Concepts and Cases Competitiveness and Globalization. 12th Edition. South Western College Publications.

Hourani, M. (2017). Conceptual Frameworks for Strategic Implementation: A Literature Review. Jounal of Management Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 12-30.

Hoverstadt, P., Loh, L. & Marguet, N. (2020). Measuring The Performance of Strategy. Measuring Business Excellence, June 2020.

Iglesias, A. (2015). Making Strategic Planning Work in Local Government: An Empirical Study of Success and Failure. Strategic Public Management Journal vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 40-55.

Joiner, B. (2019). Leadership Agility for Organisational Agility. Journal of Creating Value, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 139-149.

Joiner, B. & Joseph, S. (2019). The Five Levels of Leadership Agility. Agile Leadership Journey. Retrieved from, date: 06.06. 2021.

Kaplan, R.S. & Norton D.P. (2005). The Office of Strategy Management. Harvard Business Review, pp.1-11.

Lokman, H.F., Khalid, F. & Nasri, N.M. (2019). Meta Synthesis Effectiveness of Social Media Use in Strategic Management of Organisations. Academy of Strategic Management Journal.

Maalouf, G. (2019). Effects of collaborative leadership on organizational performance. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, vol .6, pp. 138-144.

Mapetere, D., (2021). The Impact of Communication Design on Strategy Implementation Success: A Study of Commercialised State-Owned Enterprises in The Communication Technology and Courier Services Sector of Zimbabwe. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, vol. IX, Issue 5 May 2021.

Nayak, J. (2015). Fundamentals of Research Methodology. Problems and Prospects. 1st Edition, SSDN Publishers & Distributers, New Delhi.

Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Obeidat, B.Y., Al-Hadidi, A., Tarhini, A. & Masa’deh, R. (2017). Factors Affecting Strategy Implementation: A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Companies in the Middle East. Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 27 , no.3.

Okumus, F. (2003). A Framework to Implement Strategies in Organisations. Management Decision, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 871– 882.

Olivier, A.J. & Schwella, E. (2018). Closing the Stratgey Execution Gap in the Public Sector. International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 14 ,no.1 , pp. 6-32.

Saunders, M.N.K., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2019). Research Methods for Business Students. 8th Edition, Pearson, New York.

Shereni, N. (2019). The Role of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Restoring Hospitality Sector Specific Skills in Zimbabwe: A Students’ Perspective. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, vol. 32, no.10, pp. 1-9.

Siddique, I. & Shadbolt, N. (2016). Strategy Implementation Literature Review. Agrione Center of Excellence in Farm Business, Management Report, March 2016.

Smet, A.D., Lurie, M. & George, A. (2018). Leading Agile Transformation: The New Capabilities Leaders Need to Build 21st Century Organisations. McKinsey October 2018. Retrieved from,, date: 18. 04. 2020.

Tawse, A. & Tabesh, P. (2021) Strategy Implementation; A Review and an Introductory Framwework. European Management Journal, vol. 39, no.1, pp. 22-33.

Teece, D.J. (2012). Dynamic Capabilités : Routines versus Entrepreneurial Action. Journal of Management Studies, 2012, vol.49, pp.1395–1401.

Teece, D.J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management. Strategic Management Journal, vol.18, no.7.

Tsimba G., Mugoniwa B. & Mutembedza A. (2021). A Mobile Ad-hoc Strategy to Enhance ICT Based Education in Zimbabwean Rural Schools. IST Africa 2020 Conference Proceedings. ICT Strategies for Education.

Wheelen, L.W., Hunger, J.D., Hoofman, A.N. & Bamford, C.E. (2017). Concepts in Strategic Management and Business Policy: Globalization, Innovation and Sustainability. 15th Edition, Publisher: Pearson, ISBN: 978-013452205.




How to Cite

Matshe, N. (2023). Stakeholder Agility As An Enabler of Strategy Implementation: Evidence from the Zimbabwe Public Tertiary Education InstitutionsInstitutions . Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica, 19(6), 7–17. Retrieved from



Business Administration and Business Economics