Strategic Options for Improved Organizational Performance in the Nigerian Telecommunication Industry: Miles and Snow Approach.


  • Waidi Adeniyi Akingbade Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria


Analyzer, Defender, Prospector, Telecommunication Company, Reactor


The global telecommunications industry has witnessed tremendous challenges in the last two decades. Telecommunications companies in Nigeria have formulated policies that could enable them to cope with the global challenge. However, most of them have not really employed strategic options that could enable them to cope with the changing condition. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of Miles and Snows strategies which is considered the major approach that could promote competitiveness in the industry to enable them manage and survive other present and future challenges. The study adopted survey research design and population composed of 7,567 top and middle level management staff of four major service providers MTN, Airtel, Globacom and 9Mobile with sample size of 380 determined scientifically through Yamane’s (1967) formula. Combinations of judgemental and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select participants for the study from the selected telecommunication companies. Out of the 380 content validated questionnaire subjected to Cronbach’s Alpha measure of reliability distributed, 369 were retrieved representing a response rate of 97.1%. The study reaffirmed the efficacy of Mile and Snow’s competitive strategy. It was recommended that Telecom Company should adopt prospector, analyzer, and defender strategies to improve their performances.  


1. Akingbade, W.A. (2014). Competitive strategies and improved performance in selected Nigeria telecommunication companies, Journal of Entrepreneurship Management and Innovation, National-Louis University, Poland, 10 (4), 143-167.
2. Akingbade, W.A. (2016). Effects of organizational strategies on the performance of selected Telecommunication companies in Nigeria. (Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Lagos State University, Nigeria).
3. Anwar, J., & Hasnu, S.A.F. (2016). Business strategy and firm performance: A multi-industry analysis. Journal of Strategy and Management. 9 (3). http.//
4. Blackmore, K., & Nesbitt, K. (2013). Verifying the Miles & Snow strategy types in Australian small and medium size enterprises. Australian Journal of Management, 38 (1), 171-190.
doi: 10.1177/0312896212444692.
5. Business Day. (2020). Business Day. Lagos: Media Limited.
6. Conant, J.S., Mokwa, M.P., & Varadarajan, P.R. (1990). Strategic types, distinctive marketing competencies and organizational performance: a multiple measure-based study. Strategic Management Journal, 11(2) 365-383.
7. Desarbo, W.S., DiBenedetto, C.A., Song, M., & Sinha, I. (2005). Revisiting the miles and snow strategic framework: uncovering interrelationships between strategic types, capabilities, environmental uncertainty, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 26 (1), 47-74.
8. Evans, J.E., & Green, R.J. (2005). Why did British electricity prices fall after 1998? cmi working paper ep26, University of Cambridge.
9. Gnjidic, V. (2014). Researching the dynamics of Miles and Snow’s strategic typology, Management, 19 (1) 93-117. UDC:005.21:664>(497.5).
10. Hambrick, D.C. (1983). Some tests of the effectiveness and functional attributes of mile and snow’s strategic types. Academy of Management Journal, 24(1), 5-26.
11. Hambrick, D.C. (2003). On the staying power of defenders, analysers, and prospectors. The Academy of Management Executive. 17 (4), 115-118.
12. Hansu, J.A.S. (2016). ‘’Business strategy and firm performance: a multi-industry analysis’’. Journal of Strategy and Management, 9 (3)
13. Hawes, J.M., & Crittenden, W.F. (2004). Taxonomy of competitive retailing strategies. Strategic Management Journal, 5, 275-287.
14. Ingram,T., Krasnicka, T., Wronka-Pospiech, M., Glod, G., & Glod, W. (2016). Relationships between Miles and Snow strategic types and organizational performance in Polish production companies. Journal of Management and Business Administration, 24 (1) 17-45. Doi:10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.162.
15. Isoherranen, V., & Kess, P. (2011). Analysis of strategy typology and orientation framework. Modern Economy Scientific Research. 2, 575-583.
doi: 10.4236/me.2011.24064.
16. Karabag, S.F., & Berggren, C. (2014). Antecedents of firm perform in emerging economics: business groups, strategy, industry structure, and state support. Journal of Business Research, (67) 10, 2212 – 2223
17. Khandwalla, R.N. (1995). The Management style. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc
18. Lin, C., Tsai, H.L., & Wu, J.C. (2014). Collaboration strategy decision making using the Miles and Snow typology. Journal of Business Research, 67 (9), 1979-1990.
doi: 10.1016/j.jbures.2013.19.013
19. Lumpkin, G.T., & Dess, G.G. (2012). The effect of ‘simplicity’ on the strategy performance relationship: a note. Journal of Management Studies. 43, (2) 1583-1604.
20. Martins, T.S., & Kato,H,T. (2010). An analytical framework for Miles and Snow typology and dynamic capabilities. Encontro da ANPAD 25 1-14. Rio de janeiro/RJ-25 a 29 de Setembro de
21. Mc Kee, D., Varadarjam, P., & Pride, W. (1989). Strategic adaptability and firm performance: a market contingent perspective. Journal of Marketing. 24 (2) 16-25.
22. McDaniel, S. W., & Kolari, J.W. (1987). Marketing strategy implications of the miles and snow strategic typology. Journal of Marketing, 51(4), 19-30.
23. Miles, R.E., & Snow, C.C. (1978). Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
24. Miller, A., & Dess, G.G. (1993). Assessing porters (1980) model in items of its generalizability, accuracy and simplicity. Journal of Management Studies, 30(2), 553-583
25. NBS. (2017). National bureau of statistics telecoms data: Active voice and internet per state, porting and tariff information.
26. NCC. (2018). Nigeria Communication Commission. Number of staff of Nigeria Telecommunication Industry. Retrieved from (
27. NCC. (2019). Nigeria Communication Commission. Retrieved from
28. Oyedijo, A.I., & Akewushola, R.O. (2012). Organizational strategy and firm performance: An empirical test of Miles and Snow’s model using 34 paint manufacturing SMES in south-western Nigeria. Journal of Research in International Business and Management, 2 (6) 170-178.
29. Pang, A., Cropp, F., & Cameron, G.T. (2006). Corporate crisis planning: tensions, issues, and contradictions. Journal of Commerce and Management, 10 (2) 371-389.
30. Parnell, J.A., & Wright, P. (1993). Generic strategy and performance: an empirical test of Miles and Snow typology. British Journal of Management 4 (1), 29-36.
31. Parnell, J.A. (2012). Competitive strategy and performance in mexico, peru, and the united states. Journal of Centrum Cathedra, 12 (2), 150-164.
32. Porter, M.E. (1980). Competitive Strategy, New York: Free Press.
33. Porter, M.E. (1985). Competitive Advantage, New York: Free Press.
34. Punchnewspaper. (2020). -and-ignorance/ April 4.
35. Shortell, S. M. & Zajac, E .J. (1990). Perceptual and archival measures of miles and snow's strategic types: a comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity, Academy of Management Journal, 12(2), 817-832.
36. Slater, S.F., & Olson, E.M. (2001). Marketing’s contribution to the implementation of business strategy: An empirical analysis. Strategic Management Journal. 22, 1055-1067.
37. Snow, C. C., & Hrebiniak, L. G. (1980). Strategy, distinctive competence and organizational performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, (2) 317-336.
38. Sollosy, M.D. (2013). A contemporary examination of the miles & snow strategic typology through the lenses of dynamic capabilities and ambidexterity (Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Kennesaw State University, USA).
39. Tan, H., Weston, R., & Tang, Y. (2019). Applying the Miles and Snow’s business strategy typology to China’s real estate development industry: A research framework
40. The Guardian. (2019). (
41. Thompson, Jr, A.A., Peteraf, M.A., Gamble, J.E., & Strickland III, A.J. (2016). Crafting and executing strategy. The quest for competitive advantage: Concepts & cases. New York: McGraw- Hill (20th ed.)

42. Walker, O. C., & Ruekert, R.W. (1987). Marketing's role in the implementation of business strategies: a critical review and conceptual framework, Journal of Marketing, 51, 1S-33.
43. Woodside, A.G., Sullivan, D.P., & Trappey, R.P. (1999). Assessing relationships among strategic types, distinctive marketing competencies and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 45, 135-146.
44. Woweffect. (2018). Nigeria telecoms companies and marketing: A breakdown of their marketing: Strategies & recommendations.
45. www.lswrc.lagosstate.
46. Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: an introductory analysis. New York: Happer and row.
47. Youssef, M.S., & Christodoulou, I.P. (2017). Assessing Miles and Snow typology through the lens of managerial discretion: How national-level discretion impact firms strategic orientation. Management and Organizational Studies. 4 (1) 67-73.
doi:10.5430/mos.v4n1p67. URL:httP://
48. Zahra, S.A. (1987). Research on the Miles and Snow (1978) typology of strategic orientation: review, critique and future directions. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, 8, 56-60. doi: 10.5465/AMBPP.1987.17533740
49. Zamani, S., Parnell, J.A., Labbaf, H., & O’Regan, H. (2013). Strategic change and decision making in an emerging nation: An Exploring assessment of Iranian manufacturing firms. Strategic Change, 22 (355), 370. doi:10.1002/jsc




How to Cite

Akingbade, W. A. (2021). Strategic Options for Improved Organizational Performance in the Nigerian Telecommunication Industry: Miles and Snow Approach.: Array. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica, 17(2). Retrieved from



Business Administration and Business Economics