Evaluating the Significance of Strategic Management on the Monitoring and Evaluation of Secondary Schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa
Jeremiah Madzimure1, Phillemon Mashishi2
Abstract: The management of monitoring and evaluation systems for secondary schools is one of fundamentally important educational development and improvement initiatives in South Africa. Nevertheless, the efficiency of monitoring and evaluation has been under scrutiny considering the deteriorating standards of secondary education. This brought the question on how the systems are managed hence provoking the significance of strategic management on monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools while drawing inferences in the Gauteng Schools Governing Bodies. The study is a qualitative study where data was collected using interviews from a sample of 10 participants. The sample was obtained using a non-probability sampling executed using a purposive sampling technique. The elicited views and opinions were thematically analysed where arguments were arranged in codes generated from patterns of meaning and recurrence. The study however noted that monitoring and evaluation of secondary education is challenged by lack of communication and coordination, poor reporting systems and insufficiency of usable data. Furthermore, the strategic management has been established as very crucial in monitoring and evaluation considering how it reduces uncertainty and limits resistance to change in monitoring and evaluation and identifies strategic advantages of the organisation. In the same vein, considering the significance of strategic management there are various interventions that can be adopted to improve monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. The organisations must adopt a human-centered design approach, improve collection and analysis of monitoring and evaluation data and embracing strategic management underpinnings such as intensive planning and coordination.
Keywords: Strategic management; SMEs; monitoring and evaluation.
JEL Classification: I21, I25, M10, M14
In existing research, the strategic management discourse has been central to various discussions and its adoption in various entities has been the backbone of incessant discussions. The general understanding of strategic management is conceived as the continuous planning, monitoring, analysis, and assessment of the organisational necessities that drives the achievement of goals and objectives. Among the several management styles that are critical to achieving organizational goals, strategic management has received attention for its contribution to organizational growth and performance. However, although strategic management has been affirmed in different organizations around the world, its importance towards monitoring and evaluation efficiency of secondary schools by the Schools Governing Bodies (SGBs) has remained fundamentally unexamined. The SGBs in Gauteng Province has been facing management issues on the monitoring and evaluation systems for secondary schools which have been attributed as affecting the educational development and improvement initiatives in South Africa. Therefore, considering the high affirmation of strategic management across the management subject, the study aims to determine the significance of strategic management on monitoring and evaluation systems for Gauteng province’s secondary schools.
The development of education across the globe has been fundamental across the globe. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) collaborated with several member states such as South Africa and established a General Education Quality Diagnostic Analysis and Monitoring Framework (GEQAF) in a bid to improve in strength the national capacity in assessing the education systems in nation states (Gracia & Quezada, 2016). The policy influenced the enactment of several policies and initiatives in nation states where education systems were monitored and evaluated to determine if it aligns to curriculum and established systems.
The management of monitoring and evaluation systems for secondary schools is one of fundamentally important educational development and improvement initiatives in South Africa (Gracia & Quezada, 2016). The performance of monitoring and evaluation systems designed for secondary schools is indicated in the performance of the leaners in their respective educational grades. According to Kaloop, Elbeltagi, Hu and Elrefai (2017), the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the education systems is to enable upward socio-economic mobility and is a key to escaping poverty. Over the past decade, major progress has been made towards increasing access to education and school enrolment rates at all levels, particularly for girls. Nevertheless, about 260 million children were still out of school in 2018, Courtney (2019) finds that nearly one fifth of the global population in that age group.
The state of secondary schools has been considered significantly low standards are depreciating continuously. The monitoring and evaluation endeavours which have been established to ensure high performance and adhering to high standards of learning in secondary schools in South Africa. Nevertheless, the poor educational performance in secondary schools brought questioning of the effectiveness and efficiency of monitoring and evaluation discourse by the Schools Governing Bodies (Gracia & Quezada, 2016). Against these background, strategic management has been appreciated across the globe in all sectors considering its efficiency and effectiveness towards attaining a significantly higher performance.
Therefore, given a degree of appreciation strategic management is receiving in organisations and its contribution towards efficiency and effectiveness, it remains yet to be examined how the discourse performs in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools remains to be examined. The potential capacity and capability of strategic management can be plausible to ease the management woes surrounding the secondary schools monitoring and evaluation by the Schools Governing Bodies in the Gauteng Province.
The performance of monitoring and evaluation strategies in secondary schools in South Africa has come under criticism after years of poor educational performance among learners. The poor educational performance has been reflected by high youth unemployment, as well as the number of school dropouts that reflect challenges in leaners’ behaviour towards the importance of education for his/her leaner. Several schools in Gauteng province have been identified in numerous institutional development reports from representative districts (Statistics SA, 2020). Although monitoring and evaluation systems in secondary schools in South Africa have been existent, they are found to have been associated with management challenges which inhibited their efficiency and effectiveness. The management of monitoring and valuation strategies has been alleged as lacking proper planning, a management problem where emphasis is premised on minor outcomes.
According to Kaloop, Elbeltagi, Hu and Elrefai (2017), the monitoring and evaluation strategies are implemented without a scope that aligns to projected outcomes or results and the management of strategies or initiatives are hardly sustainable. There are incidences that have pointed to the existence of poor working relationship between parents’ structures (School Governing Bodies) and the School Management Teams (SMT) and these have further shown the need for a strategic intervention that is modelled at sustainable monitoring and evaluation systems. It therefore suffices to examine how strategic management can ease these management woes and to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency in monitoring and evaluation processes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of strategic management in the monitoring and evaluation systems of schools in Gauteng region to establish improved learning experience of learners in secondary schools.
2. Literature Review
2.2.1. Strategic Management
The concept of strategic management is argued as the management of resources in organisation to accomplish the set objectives and goals (Khosiev, Ostaev, Gogaev, Markovina, Latysheva & Konina, 2019). The concept covers the setting of objectives, analysis of how competitive of the business environment, analysis of internal organisation and evaluation of strategies to ensure a successful roll out of strategies across the organisation (Hitt, Arregle & Holmes Jr, 2020). The deliberation of strategic management is segmented into two schools of thought; the prescriptive school of thought which posits strategic management as how strategies should be developed and a descriptive school of thought which attests the implementation of strategies (Amason & Ward, 2020). The underpinnings of strategic management rest on the analysis of strategies through an analytic process where threats and opportunities are accounted for.
Historically, the notion of strategy is related to pre-emptive change scenarios and action plans (Cattani, Porac & Thomas, 2017). Since the emergence of a strategy concept, the definition and description of the term still varies in terms measure and intricacy, conditional on the framework or setting of the application. In general, the strategy is considered based on goals, policies, goals, strategies and procedures, trying to define this notion (Gracia & Quezada, 2016). However, the concept of strategy has been utilised many intervals transversely the management field, and it is comprehended to range from precisely formulated action plans, positioning in a specific environment to the entire personality, core and reasons for the existence of the organization (Hill, Jones & Schilling, 2014).
The adoption of strategy in the management facet has stimulated the development of strategic management as a fundamental discourse (Babafemi, 2015). In the same regard, Habib and Hasan (2017) proposed that strategic management developed from a mixed discipline of economics and sociology. The concept has evolved with the development of organizational theory and is assumed to have evolved in the academic research and business in period above 1950s (Cattani, Porac & Thomas, 2017). The overall development of strategic management was entirely comprehended in the 1960s and 1970s. The appreciation of the strategic management discourse is premised on the processes and plans to achieve strategic goals. The strategic management concept is demonstrated by a Figure 2.1 below:
Figure 2.1. Strategic Management
Source: Pollanen, Abdel-Maksoud, Elbanna, and Mahama (2017)
According to Figure 1, strategic management connects three elements of management: planning, execution and monitoring of strategies (Pollanen, Abdel-Maksoud, Elbanna & Mahama, 2017). This depicts the notion of strategic management the relationship between organizational priorities, results, and a wide range of internal and external environmental variables within the entity.
2.2. Historical Evolution of Strategic Management
The strategic management discipline is assumed to have emerged in the period of 1950s and 1960s. Among the numerous early contributors, the most influential were Peter Drucker, Philip Selznick, Alfred Chandler, Igor Ansoff and Bruce Henderson. The discipline draws from earlier thinking and texts on 'strategy' dating back thousands of years (Leskaj, 2017). Prior to 1960, the term "strategy" was primarily used regarding war and politics, not business. Many companies built strategic planning functions to develop and execute the formulation and implementation processes during the 1960s (Polyanin & Dokukina, 2016).
The development of strategic management can be attributed to the works of Peter Drucker popularly conceived as a prolific management theorist and author of dozens of management books, with a career spanning five decades (Polyanin & Dokukina, 2016). In some of works, Peter Drucker addressed fundamental strategic questions, for instance, in a 1954 book The Practice of Management writing. In this regard, strategic management was linked to aspects such as market standing, innovation, productivity, physical and financial resources, worker performance and attitude, profitability, manager performance and development, and public responsibility (Leskaj, 2017). The fundamental thrust was based on differentiation from other actors.
In addition, strategy has historically been related to pre-emption of the various situations and action plans (Cattani, Porac & Thomas, 2017). Since the emergence of the notion strategy, the definition and description of the term still vary greatly in scale and complexity, depending on the context or environment of the application. In general terms, strategy is considered in terms of goals, policies, and objectives and this underpin the tactics and procedures aimed at reaching the objectives and goals (Gracia & Quezada, 2016). However, the concept of strategy has been used many times in the field of management, from precisely formulated action plans, positioning in a specific environment to the entire existence of the organization (Hill, Jones and Schilling, 2014). Drawing on Porter's (1996) point of view, the strategy is considered to be that the way in which various activities are performed is completely different from the way competitors perform or execute activities. Generally, the evolution of strategy is understood as a term full of great diversity and breadth, and it is also used in other areas as supplements and differences in other areas.
2.3. Strategic Management Process
The comprehension of strategic management requires the unpacking of its fundamental pillars (Cattani et al., 2017). It is formed by integral pillars that form a strategic management process as can be illustrated by a diagram below:
Figure 2.2. Strategic Management Process
Source: Lu (2017)
2.3.1. Strategic Intent
As shown in Figure 2.1, the strategic management process begins with the organization's formulation of strategic intent (Lu, 2017). The development of strategic intent covers the definition of the organization's expected future vision. The vision includes the idealism, uniqueness, image and future direction of the strategy. Thompson, Strickland and Gamble (2016) pointed out that strategic intent reflects a complete and well-conceived strategy, which includes organizational processes and directions.
2.3.2. Strategy Formulation
According to Lu (2017), the process shifts to strategy formulation, which considers various strategic options. The formulation of this strategy involves analysing all possible actions through models such as PESTLE and SWOT analysis. Thompson, Strickland and Gamble (2016) believe that the formulation of this strategy requires an understanding of the external and internal environment in order to achieve a competitive advantage in their respective areas of influence. The strategy developed must be resource feasible and adhere to the company's goal of ensuring growth.
2.3.3. Strategy Implementation
Tapera (2014) believes that the strategy implementation stage in the strategic management process is the actual execution of the strategy. In the same regard, Lu (2017) believes that the implementation of strategy is the initiation of action, in which people realize the consistency of resources and goals. This is considered a challenging stage, reflecting the lag between planning and implementation. At this stage, significant flexibility in strategy is required to adapt to the turbulent nature of the business environment.
2.3.4. Strategic Evaluation and Control
Lu (2017) asserted that strategic evaluation and control are the insertion of performance evaluation and corrective adjustments to operational strategies. In terms of set goals and objectives, strategic evaluation is monitoring the results and performance of the strategy, especially when executed in the actual business environment (Thompson, Strickland & Gamble, 2016). Therefore, the assessment will make necessary adjustments and redirects when determining the exact success of the strategic plan.
In any case, the strategic management process is built on the premise of obtaining organizational competitive advantage, productivity and profitability. This development is considered the basis of organizational performance.
2.4. Monitoring and Evaluation
The concepts of monitoring and evaluation are utilised in evaluating the performance of projects, institutions and programs established by governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations (McLellan, 2020). The thrust is to enhance the existing and future output, results and impact management. In that regard, monitoring is attested as an unceasing evaluation of a plan based on early detailed information about the progress or delay of an ongoing evaluated activity (Delponte, Pittaluga & Schenone, 2017). Concurrently, evaluation is an inspection of the applicability, efficiency, efficiency and influence of happenings grounded on explicit purposes.
Furthermore, monitoring and evaluation processes can be achieved by the donor who funded the evaluation activity, the independent branch of the implementing organization, the project manager or the implementation team itself and/or by a private company (Kaloop, Elbeltagi, Hu & Elrefai, 2017). The credibility and objectivity of monitoring and evaluation reports depend to a large extent on the independence of the evaluators as well as their expertise critical to the success of this process (Delponte, Pittaluga & Schenone, 2017). The monitoring and evaluation processes in terms of focus area can be illustrated in the diagram as per below:
Figure 2.3. Monitoring and Evaluation
Source: McLellan (2020)
The diagram above shows that monitoring and evaluation frameworks segment in terms of focus. The processes are implemented after the goals have been formulated. The goals lead to the establishment of objectives which forms the background or foundation of the monitoring focus (McLellan, 2020). The monitoring focus covers the activities or inputs and the outputs while the evaluation focuses on the outcomes and the impacts (Delponte, Pittaluga & Schenone, 2017). Regardless that the evaluation is usually retrospective, the sole thrust of the evaluation processes is to push the organisation ahead. In this reasoning, evaluation applies the prospectus and recommendations to choices about existing and forthcoming plans.
2.5. Relevance of Monitoring and Evaluation to Education
In view of the above issues, monitoring and evaluation are crucial to the success or failure of any education plan, project or policy. Each education system should cooperate with education policies and formulate plans and projects. These plans and projects need to be effectively planned and implemented, and to ensure compliance between expectations and results, to be monitored and evaluated (Adaletey & George, 2019). Therefore, the monitoring and evaluation process is important in many areas of education, including:
2.5.1. Education Policy
Education policy sets the environment for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating educational programs and projects. Therefore, the monitoring and evaluation process can ensure the ability to check policies to provide the best institutional and legal framework that can promote the desired goals (Adaletey & George, 2019). Continuous policy review and formulation require key knowledge of the results of existing policies, methods of success or failure, and reasons and measures for improving policies (Stam, Peek & Chan, 2018). These are the basic content of policy monitoring and evaluation reports. In addition, policy relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability are key areas that can be considered only through policy evaluation and evaluation.
2.5.2. Educational Plans and Strategies
Monitoring and evaluation makes it able to determine what needs to be solved, what has been tried before, which strategies are effective, and which strategies are not effective, these plans and strategies cannot be effectively formulated, all of which are the results of policy monitoring and evaluation (Stam, Peek & Chan, 2018). In addition, only executing the plan without evaluating whether it is ex-ante or ex-post is not in line with a reasonable plan and may result in a waste of resources.
2.5.3. Educational Plan
These refer to the content that the education system must provide, and its effectiveness will inevitably lead to the failure or success of the entire education system, because the education plan is directly responsible for educating learners (Adaletey & George, 2019). Therefore, the results of education programs must be monitored and evaluated.
2.5.4. School Performance
The implementation and results of an education plan is another related area of monitoring and evaluation. The need to determine the causal variables of school performance, measure actual performance with expected performance, and seek to identify performance problems and the need for solutions require monitoring and evaluation processes (Adaletey & George, 2019).
Nevertheless, supervision and evaluation not only need to be institutionalized in government and organizational planning processes and documents, but also in the minds and hearts of citizens (Stam, Peek & Chan, 2018). The achievement of monitoring and evaluation will translate into governments or institutions that are results-focused, non-state actors that are results-oriented and ultimately a citizenry that demands for transformational development results. If monitoring and evaluation provides project, plan, or policy evidence of what is right, what is wrong, and to some extent why the results are positive or negative, the correlation will increase exponentially (Lapshina & Romanovskaia, 2019). Therefore, the historical facts about monitoring and evaluation have opened the eyes of current and future development policy makers and implementers, hence, suffices to state that its relevant in the education sector.
2.6. Management Challenges faced in Monitoring and Evaluation
The processes of evaluation and monitoring are often impeded by the management woes in the organisation. This stems from the realisation that the monitoring and evaluation frameworks are designed by the management which directs the focus and activities involved in the processes.
The management of monitoring and evaluation system is often impeded by the absence of reliable communication between major players included in the framework (Gichunge, 2016). Binning (2017) is of the view that the monitoring and evaluation systems require effective and continuous communication between major players where the aim of evaluation is deliberated, the fundamental goal to be accomplished explained as well as the feedback to determine areas for improvement and to come up with more decisions to do with the education systems or performance of the schools. In concurrence, Bogaert (2016) proved that communication failure in the monitoring and evaluation system can lead to an emergency of rubberstamping, ambiguity of problems and failure to discern the challenges of the education system or causal factors of poor schools performance.
In addition, management also faces the challenge of lack of strategic consistency between the monitoring and evaluation goals and the educational development agenda (Bogaert, 2016). The goals of monitoring and evaluation are poorly managed and controlled in line with the required education development goals and also the performance of the schools. As a result, people may not be able to determine the priority of goals and collaboration conflicts, which undermine the sustainability of the monitoring and evaluation of school performance (Gichunge, 2016). The absence of strategic consistency is due to ineffective goal setting, non-strategic tasks and complicated and too broad. These goals in most cases demands substantial resources distributed in various departments and positions to accomplish (Binning, 2017). Therefore, the lack of consistency of strategic objectives will affect the monitoring and evaluation systems of schools which translate into a compromised of the education development agenda.
According to Gichunge (2016), strategic management faces the challenge of disconnection between organizational personnel and strategy. In some cases, due to the inconsistency of professional goals and personal interests, strategic goals are rarely easy to achieve and their scope is small. The monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools depends on strategic team, who must learn new skills and take on more responsibilities (Bogaert, 2016). Against that background, disconnect between people and strategy also lacks major indicators to measure their development or progress. Ololude (2015) clearly stated that strategic goals must be measured, tracked, and managed through predictive analysis that promotes management dialogue in the organization. Therefore, strategic management faces challenges, such as people being out of touch with strategic goals, and lack of measurement and performance prediction indicators for strategic goals.
2.7. Significance of Strategic Management in Monitoring and Evaluation Processes
The strategic management is posited as a panacea to several management woes in various organisations and sectors (Rusman & Schuh, 2017). In this regard, the significance of strategic management in the monitoring and evaluation processes is deliberated as per below:
Pollanen, Abdel-Maksoud, Elbanna, and Mahama (2017) are of the view that strategic management is essential for monitoring and evaluation because of its strategic performance indicators that measures performance and sustainability. In this regard, secondary schools can use indicators that integrate strategies in both long and short-terms an functional objectives, while attending to the causality and target arrangements, target action tactics, and multi-angle availability of higher performance and global education competitiveness indicators (Hair Jr, Wolfinbarger, Money, Samouel & Page, 2015). More so, Johnsen (2015) clearly pointed out that strategic management impacts on the strategic processes of decision-making through determining long-term strategies and also determining of whether monitoring and evaluation processes are applicable to the secondary schools in the education system. In this context, strategic management is crucial to the monitoring and evaluation of school performance, because it considers the coordination of strategic effects and the optimization of resources, which ultimately leads to the development of higher education performance.
Rusman and Schuh (2017) pointed out that global villages are turning to using technology as a basic tool for business development and sustainability. This means that innovation is penetrating the education system, as evidenced by the global epidemic, in which learners are engaged in school business at home and virtually send homework to teachers due to travel and interaction regulations. The applicability of technological progress in secondary schools requires viable and effective monitoring and evaluation strategies which can be ensured through adoption of strategic management (Hair Jr, Wolfinbarger, Money, Samouel & Page, 2015). The use of strategic management will enable school monitoring and evaluation to successfully implement technical measurements to collect data on school performance issues which thereby makes strategic management very essential in the education systems.
In addition, Steiss (2019) proposed that strategic management is essential within an organization because it can transform resources to effective solutions. The decision-making quality of the school management agency is reflected in the continuous control, evaluation and measurement of performance and output, capacity growth and sustainability; the basic pillar of educational development (Johnsen, 2015). The importance of strategic management is reflected in its ability to circumvent irrational choices (which may confuse results), speedy conclusions (which might devoid practicability), as well as uninformed choices that affects the school performance in a negative way (Abdel-Maksoud, Elbanna, Mahama & Pollanen, 2015). Against this background, the notion of strategic management might be considered essential, and strategic decisions can be measured by considering facts that are important to organizational performance, alternatives, and operating methods.
The quality of decision-making by schools governing bodies is reflected in the continuous control, evaluation and measurement of performance and outputs, capacity growth and sustainability; the basic pillar of education development (Johnsen, 2015). The importance of strategic management is reflected in its ability to avoid illogical decisions (which may complicate the results), hasty decisions (which may lack feasibility), and ignorant decisions that can negatively affect the performance of schools (Abdel-Maksoud, Elbanna, Mahama & Pollanen, 2015). Therefore, strategic management can be considered as vital, through strategic decision-making can be measured by considering the facts that are important to the organization's performance, alternatives, and operating methods.
3. Research Methodology
This study adopted a qualitative method because it can further explore the research phenomena (Leedy & Ormrod, 2015). This approach enabled people to establish views and theories that transcend mainstream views regarding the significance of strategic management in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in Gauteng, South Africa.
The interpretivism paradigm was adopted to diversify the perspectives handled in the research, thereby generating a deep understanding beyond a mere description of the research background (Leedy & Ormrod, 2015). The interpretivism paradigm also allowed the generation of knowledge so that certain aspects of surveys and prompts can be observed, and the interviewee’s views and opinions can be explored (Kumar, 2014).
The exploratory research design was adopted in the primary study in line with the interpretivist paradigm the study adopted. The study explored the significance of strategic management in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools by the Schools Governing Bodies in Gauteng Province.
The phenomenological strategy was used in this study because it provides an explanatory dimension that relies on supporting, informing, and challenging theories of action (Maree, 2017). The use of interview strategies can detect answers and collect detailed responses to clearly address the research question. Interviews allowed the collection of detailed answers on how strategic management can be of significance towards monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in Gauteng, South Africa.
3.1. Target Population
The target population of a research study is a group or set of individuals the study targets for inferences that addresses the research problem (Maree, 2017). This specific study’s target population comprises of the School Management Team Members (SMTM), School Governing Board Members (SGBM) and District Institutional Development Support Members (DIDSM) involved in the monitoring and evaluation systems performance and sustainability in the district in Gauteng province. The target population in these institutions were the management who are involved in the formulating of monitoring and evaluation systems and processes. This position the target population in proximity to the management of evaluation and monitoring and the challenges incurred. The understanding of the management problems will assist in giving accurate ideas on how strategic management can be a panacea to the management of monitoring and evaluation challenges. The management amounts to 38 individuals of which this study required a sample of 12 participants in line with the MANCOSA policy and Creswell (2014)’s assertion that 10-15 participants are appropriate for a qualitative study.
3.2. Sampling technique
The sampling was conducted using a non-probability sampling which assumes that it is vital to target the population the researcher is aware of the connection to the subject under study (Salkind, 2013). The applicability of non-probability sampling depends on the specific nature of the case study. The non-probability sampling was executed using a purposive or judgmental sampling technique which put focus on the characteristic’s requisite to the research problem.
3.3. Sample Size
Salkind (2013) is of the view that a sample size is the act of selecting the number of observations or replicates to constitute a sample. A sample is the actual participants whose views and perceptions will be used in the study and in addressing the research problem (Flick, 2014). In this regard, Desu (2012) conceived that the sample size determination must be led by the criterion of informational redundancy. In qualitative research, Creswell (2014) attested that a sample of 10-15 participants is sufficient to saturate the research findings; hence, justifying the 12-sample size the study used.
3.4. Data Collection Process
Data collection in research studies is carried out through various means depending on the research approach the study adopts. This is the primary recording of views and perceptions of participants drawn from the research phenomenon (Cooper & Chindler, 2014). Various methods (such as interviews and focus group dialogues) can be used in qualitative analysis to gather evidence. This analysis used semi-structured interviews to elicit views and opinions of the participants on the role of strategic management in monitoring and evaluating secondary schools in Gauteng, South Africa.
The research employed semi-structured interviews due to its inductive nature and this will be conducted adhering to an interview guide that ensures a researcher does not deviate from the main subject. The semi-structured structure also guides the primary study process and controls the research to focus on key aspects to avoid wasting time on unimportant aspects (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2014). Semi-structured is feasible to determine the importance of strategic management towards the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in Gauteng Province.
3.5. Data Analysis
Data analysis involves the sense-making processes of the data collected from participants through various techniques (Creswell, 2014). The choice and selection of data analysis techniques depends on the research approach the study adopts. In line with the qualitative approach, the thematic analysis was adopted. The thematic analysis is a technique used for qualitative data and usually used when data has been collected using inductive technique such as interviews (Cooper & Chindler, 2014).
Thematic analysis is an interrogation of the opinions and sentiments obtained by the participants and coded them into themes, which are derived from the importance of the strategic management on the monitoring and evaluation systems of secondary schools in Gauteng Province. The thematic analysis first familiarised with the findings where arguments are grouped according and patterns and recurrence generate codes as they appear from the main themes (Salkind, 2013). The themes were also presented in a thematic manner as they address the research objectives used.
The thematic analysis was adopted for it does not require theoretical and technological knowledge of other qualitative approaches. This offers a more accessible form of analysis where examining of perspectives from the participants is enabled through highlighting similarities and differences, and generating unanticipated insights (Salkind, 2013).
4.1. Demographic Details
The demographic details of the participants are critical to the research findings (Maree, 2017). The composition of demographics reveals trends within the organization and how these conditions can best affect the results of the research, especially in relation to each respondent. Babbie (2014) also elaborated on the demographic details, showing the characteristics of the participants determine whether they are suitable for promotion to a wider target population, whether they are suitable for researching and how close they are to the research object. The following recorded demographic details were recorded in the study:
Gender Composition of the Participants
Age Groups of the Participants
Designation of the Participants
Experience in the Business Environment
However, the discussion of the demographic details commences by presenting the interview turnout rate.
4.1.1. Interview Turnout Rate
Creswell (2014) opined that a qualitative study requires participants from 10 to 15 for it to be acceptable. In this study, a sample of 12 participants was targeted and requested through interview requests. And the result is illustrated in Figure 4.1:
Figure 4.1. Interview Turnout Rate
Figure 4.1 above illustrated that a target of 12 participants where two (2) declined and 10 interviews were carried. The interview turnout rate satisfies Creswell (2014)’s opinion that 10-15 interviews in a qualitative study makes a study acceptable. This therefore indicates that the study is acceptable, and that data saturation was achieved.
4.1.2. Gender Composition of the Participants
Maree (2014) assumes that gender plays a vital role in understanding concepts, because men and women conceptualize phenomena differently. In this regard, traditional understanding ensures that the gender patterns of participants can be recorded, and the results are shown in Figure 4.2 below:
Figure 4.2. Gender Composition of the Participants
Figure 4.2 outlines that the study attained seven (7) male participants and three (3) female participants. A mix of opinions between male and females were synthesized and although there is a difference in representation, both genders were represented. Therefore, a gender balanced argument was attained in the study which enhances the degree of trustworthiness.
4.1.3. Age Groups of the Participants
The age group of the participants is critical towards the model their understanding, attitudes, and beliefs about a certain phenomenon (Maree, 2017). Figure 4.3 below shows the representatives of the age groups reached in the study.
Figure 4.3. Age Groups of the Participants
According to Figure 4.3, the majority of four (4) participants were in the 31-40 years age group, three (3) participants in the 41-50 years age group, two (2) participants in the 41-50 years and only one (1) participant above 50 years. In this regard, all age groups were represented which depict a synthesis of arguments to establish high credibility of the findings.
4.1.4. Designation of the Participants
According to Maree (2014), the position of participants in the work environment is important because it can determine their experience based on their daily activities. The study is aimed at senior managers and middle managers. The names of participants in this area are shown in Figure 4.4 below:
Figure 4.4. Designation of the Participants
Figure 4.4 shows the majority of six (6) participants in non-managerial positions while four (4) participants were in the managerial positions. The general assumptions are that the non-managerial have a detailed perception of the monitoring an evaluation activity while the managers have a perceived perception of the monitoring and evaluation endeavours. The eliciting of the informed and detailed perceptions and the perceived opinions from the managers enhances the trustworthiness of the findings.
4.1.5. Years of Experience of the Participants
Participants’ experience in a discourse has been shown to enhance their understanding of a topic (Babbie, 2010). The study recorded the experience of the participants and is represented in Figure 4.5 below:
Figure 4.5. Years of Experience of the Participants
According to Figure 4.5, the 5-10 years group attained a higher representative of four (4) participants, 10-15 years had a representation of three (3) participants, two (2) participants were in the below 5 years group and only one (1) participant had above 15 years of experience.
4.2. Data Interpretation and Analysis
The qualitative data analysis requires the process of determining the direction, determining the grouping structure, and assigning meaning to the collected data (Sanders et al., 2016). The significance of data analysis in this case is that the information collected in the research is presented in a consistent structure, which provides researchers with a well-structured analysis framework for analysis. In line with the qualitative approach, a thematic analysis was used to analyse the findings and the generated subthemes were discussed where in instances direct verbatim was used. Adhering to the ethical standards of research anonymity and confidentiality were ensured where participants were referred as Participants 1, 2, 3……… Nevertheless, the thematic analysis follows a thematic map illustrated below:
4.2.1. Thematic Mapping
The Figure below illustrates the thematic mapping of the research results. The thematic map starts with the code, then classifies the code to form the theme, and then synthesizes the concept. The map is shown below:
Figure 4.6. Thematic Map
4.2.2 Management Challenges Experienced in Monitoring and Evaluation Systems/Programmes
Objective One: To determine the management challenges experienced in monitoring and evaluation systems/programmes of South African Gauteng province schools.
This section discusses the first theme- management challenges experienced in monitoring and evaluation systems/programmes. The theme is discussed through generated codes that includes lack of communication and coordination, poor reporting systems and insufficiency of usable data and deficiency of strategic alignment. The views and opinions obtained from the participants established that the management of South African Gauteng province schools.is challenged in its managing or handling of monitoring and evaluation strategies and endeavours.
188.8.131.52. Lack of Communication and Coordination
The study established that the management of South African Gauteng province schools is challenged by the lack of communication and coordination in the formulation and execution of monitoring and evaluation endeavours (Participant 2 & 9). The management is attested as impeded by miscommunication of goals and objectives of monitoring and evaluation and the lack of coordination in execution of the strategies (Participant 3, 6 & 10). In this regard, Participant 1 asserted that;
“There is no frequency of communication to ensure that every member of the management knows exactly what expected of them and when need them to complete it. This often translates to miscommunication, misunderstanding and incoordination of goals and objectives of monitoring and evaluation.”
The same perception was shared by Participant 8, who attested that;
“The lack of effective communication and coordination of goals and objectives inhibit a robust control systems and integration of processes which culminates into duplication and creation of ambiguous departmental goals. Some of the management departments and members are side-lined in monitoring and evaluation strategies and goals which attest to management flaws”.
Under this code, the absence of effective communication and coordination affects the management efficiency within the organisation. This implies a limit to the management attaining total management quality, communication of strategic approaches coordination of efforts of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. In this regard, the organisation incurs a gap in acquisition and distribution of information on projects and programmes of after-the-fact evaluations over near-time or real-time monitoring of secondary schools. The same was established by Bogaert (2016) who proved that communication failure in the monitoring and evaluation system can lead to an emergency of rubberstamping, ambiguity of problems and failure to discern the challenges of the education system or causal factors of poor schools’ performance. Therefore, it suffices to state that the Schools Governing Boards of Gauteng management faces a challenge of lack of communication and coordination which there hinders the control and sustainability of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools’ goals and standards.
184.108.40.206. Poor Reporting Systems and Insufficiency of Usable Data
The majority of the participants noted that the management of Schools Governing Boards in Gauteng operate using insufficient data which thereby challenge their efforts in managing effective monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in Gauteng (Participant 2, 5 & 10). The use of insufficient data emerges from weaker control over reporting systems which also affects data analysis. This was also propounded by Participant 4 who argued that;
“The reporting systems and frameworks are flawed which often lead managers to operate with insufficient data leading to scepticism. The teams and supervisors will end up questioning the transparency of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools when the reporting systems are not well managed”.
The same views were shared by Participant were shared by Participant 10 who opined that;
“The failure to manage the collection of sufficient data becomes very challenging to the management as they end up formulating policy based on assumptions, making improper analysis, draw usable conclusions and fail to make data-driven suggestions to improve monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools”.
Proceeding on this code, the reporting systems and insufficiency of usable data challenges the management from making appropriate analysis of the actual situation pertaining the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. This implies that monitoring and evaluation strategies and programmes are implemented and managed basing on inaccurate data that paint the secondary school’s actual performance metrics and mainly on assumptions. This supports the findings by Gichunge (2016) who indicated that poor reporting and insufficiency usable data compromises goal setting, non-strategic tasks and complicated and too broad creation of objectives. Therefore, it suffices to state that Schools Governing Boards faces a management challenge of poor reporting systems and insufficient usable data to attain and make informed decisions regarding the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools.
220.127.116.11. Deficiency of Strategic Alignment
The study established that the management of Schools Governing Boards in Gauteng lacks strategic alignment in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools’ projects and programmes (Participant 2 & 9). This becomes a challenge to the management of these programmes as the organisations fails to sustain proper goal-setting (Participant 8). This was further articulated by Participant 3 who attested that;
“The management in these organisations suffers from lack of strategic alignment and this compromises the prioritisation and standardising of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. The management of monitoring and evaluation programmes and projects becomes severely compromised; hence, becomes a management challenge”.
Participant 4 also postulated that
“Deficiency of strategic alignment occurring here culminates into crafting of large and complex goals and objectives that demands the scattering and allocation of many resources across the organisation. This affects the committing capacity and ability by the management as focus maybe put on non-strategic work that has no significant value towards efficiency of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools”.
The elicited perceptions established that management is challenged by poor alignment of strategies with the goals and objectives. The conventional understanding is that effective monitoring and evaluation requires a proper alignment of organisational goals, resources and priorities of the organisation. The managing of monitoring and evaluation of secondary school’s performance becomes highly unsustainable, ineffective and inefficient. Binning (2017) opined the same by stating that the lack of strategic alignment cause management challenges that compromise strategic goals due to the complexity of objectives that cannot be achieved by the crafted strategies. Therefore, the deficiencies in strategic alignment can be attested as culminating into a management issue or challenge that limit the operational efficiency of the organisation in monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools.
4.2.3. Significance of Strategic Management in the Monitoring and Evaluation Systems
Objective Two: To determine the significance of strategic management in the monitoring and evaluation systems in Gauteng province schools
The reviewed literature posited strategic management as vital in organisations in the private sector. The strategic management is attested as constituting a systematic approach to the management of changes, comprising the positioning of the organization through strategy and planning. Against this background, the study ascertained the significance of strategic management in the monitoring and evaluation systems of secondary schools in Gauteng Province. The views and opinions elicited were thematically analysed and generated codes are deliberated below:
18.104.22.168. Offsetting Uncertainty and Limits Resistance to Change
The study established that the monitoring and evaluation of schools is changing in terms of standards and strategies. In this regard, the majority of the participants consented in stating that strategic management reduces uncertainty and limits resistance to change in monitoring and evaluation endeavours (Participant 2, 5, 7 & 8). The same was further expanded by Participant 1 who stated that;
“Strategic management eliminates uncertainties due to its usage of rigorous processes that upsets the effects of change. The organisation may benefit from the rigorous processes of strategic management that identifies the opportunities systematically due to the usage of analytical tools”.
Participant 9 also asserted that;
“The effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation requires the redesigned and participative process in the formulation and crafting of strategies. The significance of strategy management is noted in how it ensures awareness of selecting a particular option and restricts options to viable alternatives”.
Against this background, strategic management can be attested as important considering how it permits the organisation to reduce the uncertainty threats and noting the emerging opportunities. The noting of emerging opportunities brought by strategic management often translates t effectiveness and efficient monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. The same was attested by Hair Jr, Wolfinbarger, Money, Samouel and Page (2015) who attested that strategic management transforms resources to efficiency decision making that meets and address the changes and uncertainties in the monitoring and evaluation of schools. In this regard, the strategic management is fundamental in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools as it offset uncertainties and limited the resistance to change.
22.214.171.124. Decision Making Efficiency
The strategic management has been depicted by participants as crucial by influencing the efficiency of decision making with access to pools of information and high information quality relevant to sustenance of monitoring and evaluation (Participant 1, 3 & 9). The monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools can be made effective due to the role of strategic management in giving an organisation a strategy. In this regard, Participant 2 further highlighted that;
“In the Schools Governing Boards, strategic management is vital due to its processes and systems of decision making and the practices adopted in the formulation of strategies for monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. The techniques of strategic management gather vast amounts of information relevant to monitoring and evaluation discourse”.
The same was realised by Participant 1 who attested that;
“In the energy mix, sustainability thereby draws from how operations are built on informed strategies that are implemented after rigorous management processes. This makes the strategic management discourse very significant in the energy mix development”.
Proceeding on the same code, strategic management is viable for speeding the processes of decision making and decisions made by vast amounts of information make them effective and efficient. This implies that strategic management also facilitates efficiency in terms of performance of the organisations in monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. Rusman and Schuh (2017) established the same and opined that the importance of strategic management in every organisational operation in every sector rests on its influence on decision making efficiency. Therefore, the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools can be enhanced if the decision-making efficiency is enhanced through use f strategic management; thus, positing the management style as significant.
126.96.36.199. Identifies Strategic Advantages
The strategic management has been found vital by its ability to identify strategic advantages of the organisation (Participant 5). In this regard, the majority of the participants the strategic planning, strategic evaluation and control and rigorous strategic management processes bear the capacity to identify the strategic advantages of operational activities such as monitoring and evaluation towards end goals of improving the standards of learning and school’s performance (Participant 2, 8 & 9). The same was further propounded by Participant 3 who argued that;
“The organisation can only identify its strategic advantages if strategic management is adopted. The management style will improve the formulation and execution of intensive growth in monitoring and evaluation strategies which make the whole discourse sustainable.”
In the same regard, Participant 2 propounded that;
“The adoption of strategic management in monitoring and evaluation benefits the organisation by facilitating the maximisation of internal strengths that leads to sustainable development. The strategic management adopts strategic analysis tools which maximises internal strengths”.
The elicited opinions imply that strategic management is vital in the monitoring and evaluation and organisations’ beyond as it identifies the organisation’s strategic advantages through use of various analytical tools. The organisation can only grow and sustain the turbulence of business environment if it focuses on key strategic advantages. This was deliberated by Abdel-Maksoud, Elbanna, Mahama and Pollanen (2015) who indicated that the processes and tools surrounding the strategic management determine the strategic advantage, longevity and applicability in both short-term and long-term; thus, making the management style very crucial. By and large, it can be propounded that strategic management is very significant to the Schools Governing Boards’ monitoring and evaluation activities due to its focus on strategic advantages and decision making relevant in the business environment.
4.2.4. Ways in which the Strategic Management can be embraced to Improve Monitoring and Evaluation Systems
Objective Three: To determine the ways in which the strategic management can be embraced to improve monitoring and evaluation systems of Gauteng province schools.
The monitoring and evaluation endeavors by the Schools Governing Boards have been noted as affected by several management challenges. In this regard, it remains fundamental that the ways in which the strategic management can be improved is vital to ascertain. Against that background, the views and opinions of the participants in this regard have been captured and analysed thematically and the codes were generated accordingly such as; human-centered design approach, improved monitoring and evaluation data collection and analysis and intensive strategic planning.
188.8.131.52. Human-Centered Design Approach
The study established that the organisations may adopt the human-centered design approach in monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools to enhance the efficiency utilization of resources and its management (Participant 2, 7 & 10). The human-centred design approach empowers the supervisors and managers responsible for policy and execution of monitoring and evaluation strategies (Participant 3 & 8). The same was further articulated by Participant 1;
“The human-centered approach will thereby put the beneficiaries at the heart of the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. The strategies, programmes and projects of monitoring and evaluation will be formulated by the management basing on an understanding of their needs and wants”.
Participant 5 also indicated that;
“The adoption of human-centered approach reflects the management’s regarding of the beneficiaries through inclusion of them in the designing of new monitoring and testing of new interventions. The principals and other school committees must be integrated in management designing of monitoring and evaluation programmes and projects”.
Proceeding on the same subtheme, the views elicited implies that the management is challenged by lack of grassroots information and deficiency of the input by the beneficiaries who are affected by the monitoring and evaluation programmes and projects. In this regard, the adoption of a human-centered approach will bring a sense of dignity and empowerment to beneficiaries and also give the management a chance to address the actual rather than perceived needs of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. The same was established by Watson et al. (2018), a focus on the human resources and the beneficiary strengthens the strategic management as it offers the details required in processes to do with strategic planning, control and implementation. Therefore, it suffices to state that strategic management in Schools Governing Boards can be improved by adoption of a human-centered design approach which thereby improve monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools.
184.108.40.206. Improved Collection and Analysis of Monitoring and Evaluation Data
The strategic management discourse operates by availability of data which must be collected using effective techniques. The majority of the participants established that the management must ensure effective collection of data from monitored and evaluated secondary schools (Participant 2, 5 & 8). The collected data must be analysed rigorously to determine the areas of weaknesses in management and actual monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools (Participant 9 & 10). The same was further explored by Participant 1 who pointed out that;
“The strategic management depends on the efficiency of data collection and analysis. The managers must make decisions based on an informed position so that effectiveness and efficiency in monitoring and evaluation is attained”.
Participant 3 also asserted that;
“Strategic management requires volumes of data if the strategic planning, formulation and implantation is to be achieved accordingly. The collection of data during monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools will allow the managers to make informed decisions and address the actual problems”.
On the same subject, the data collection and analysis must be formalized to give room for an informed strategic planning and decision making in regard to monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. This implies that the collection of data must be accurate and embraced in organisational operations as this will avoid a failure to address the actual problems faced in the secondary schools education standards. The same was noted in Martins and Belo (2017)’s deliberation that strategic management can only be effective if it is based of accurate and objective data which must be collected frequently and analysed rigorously. Therefore, it suffices to state that strategic management can be improved through accurate data collection on issues affecting the secondary schools learning standards and also analysis of such data to get an informed view before implementing the monitoring and evaluation strategies, programmes and projects.
220.127.116.11 Intensive Strategic Planning
The majority of the participants postulated that the strategic management depends on the strategic planning efficiency of the organisation (Participant 3, 7 & 10). In this regard, the organisation must conduct intensive strategic planning where focus is premised on growth opportunities (Participant 5). Participant 1 further articulated that;
“The monitoring and evaluation must be based on what the School Governing Boards wants to achieve in the practice. This requires a foundation of intensive strategic planning where growth opportunities are comprehended and the opportunities pursued through the monitoring and evaluation of secondary processes”.
The same reasoning was upheld by Participant 4 who established that: “Strategic management will never hold in any organisation if the strategic management underpinnings such as strategic planning are not embraced within the organisation. The Schools Governing Boards must adopt a culture of embracing the strategic options that are planned and assessed in efforts of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools”.
Proceeding on the subtheme, strategic management can only be improved if its underpinnings are embraced continuously. The strategic management underpinnings such as intensive planning would form the foundation for comprehension of the growth opportunities and tactical monitoring and evaluation systems that attains accurate results. Keyes (2016) enunciated that intensive strategic planning create an accommodative environment for strategic management through the development of processes and frameworks that weights and rank growth opportunities. Therefore, one can be forgiven for stating that embracing strategic management underpinnings will improve management of Schools Governing Boards which will thereby translate to effective monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in Gauteng.
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
The primary study addressed the first objective management challenges experienced in monitoring and evaluation systems/programmes of South African Gauteng province schools. The study established that management is challenged by lack of communication and coordination in the formulation and execution of monitoring and evaluation endeavors, poor reporting systems and insufficiency of usable data which affects the accuracy and informed perspective by managers. In the same note, the management is challenged by deficiency of strategic management alignment where goals and objectives of monitoring and evaluation are not aligned to the improvement of education sector standards improvement.
The primary study addressed the secondary objective on the significance of strategic management in the monitoring and evaluation systems in Gauteng province schools. Strategic management was found from most of the participants as vital in reducing uncertainty and limits resistance to change in monitoring and evaluation in the education sector. The same management style was established as influencing the efficiency of decision making with access to pools of information and possesses the ability to identify strategic advantages of the organisation.
Furthermore, the third research objective on the ways in which the strategic management can be embraced to improve monitoring and evaluation systems of Gauteng province schools was addressed in the primary study. It was noted from many participants that an adoption of a human-centered design approach is necessary as it considers the wants and needs of beneficiaries. The organisations’ must also improve the accuracy and effective collection and analysis of data and embrace strategic management underpinnings such as intensive planning for the entire process to hold and also to improve the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in the education sector.
The study was an ascertainment of the significance of strategic management on the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in the education sector. The study conducted a primary study where views and perceptions were thematically analysed and codes generated according to patterns of meaning and recurrence of arguments.
The study concluded that concluded that management in the education sector is challenged to sustain effective and efficient monitoring and evaluation systems/programmes of secondary schools. The challenges noted are the by lack of communication and coordination in the formulation and execution of monitoring and evaluation endeavors, poor reporting systems and insufficiency of usable data which affects the accuracy and informed perspective by managers. The management challenges make the organisational operations unsustainable and impede growth and development.
The study concluded that strategic management is very significant in the education sector in realms of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in Gauteng Province. Strategic management reduces uncertainty and limits resistance to change in monitoring and evaluation, influences the efficiency of decision making due to accessibility to pools of information and identifies strategic advantages of the organisation. The significance is noted and measured on the sustainability and growth of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in the education sector.
Furthermore, the study concluded that the strategic management in the education sector can be improved by adoption of several interventions. Organisations to sustain monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools must embrace strategic management. The organisations must adopt a human-centered design approach, improve collection and analysis of monitoring and evaluation data and embracing strategic management underpinnings such as intensive planning. In as much this will strengthen the strategic management entrenchment and integration in the organisation, the interventions enhance the efficiency of monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in the education sector.
The use of strategic management requires the use of strategic leadership, which is necessary to communicate the organization's vision and strategic plan goals to management. Strategic leaders will ensure that management can promote and control strategic actions in terms of awareness. This will consolidate strategic management and integrate it into the organization, which will also translate into improved monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in the education sector.
The study suggested that the organization should include the participation of key stakeholders, such as school staff, school committees and other aristocratic institutions related to education standards. The hypothesis is that the main stakeholders who are satisfied with the strategic plan are twice as likely to monitor the progress of the company according to the strategic plan, and to spend time identifying key strategic issues in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in education sector.
The research suggests that organizations must pay attention to strategic issues to accept strategic management to improve the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in the education sector. Organizations must avoid transforming strategic planning into tactical work meetings that focus on tactical issues. This will enable the organization to accept strategic management to overcome the challenges surrounding the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in the education sector.
The study recommends that organizations use a useful framework to describe and communicate strategic plans through strategic maps. The strategic map can bridge the gap between the monitoring and evaluation strategy and the action plan of the secondary education sector. In the same aspect, the logic of the strategy diagram must be followed for monitoring and evaluation, because it highlights the causal relationship between the key success variables of the strategy better than other strategy planning tools.
There are several avenues for further research can focus on. This study was centred on strategic management, monitoring and evaluation in the education sector. The thrust was to unpack the importance of strategic management in the education sector. However, future studies may concentrate on the following:
The future studies may concentrate on the strategic management activities that include strategic planning and strategic management process contribution to organisational sustainability and growth in the business environment.
Future studies may also focus on the monitoring and evaluation of primary schools and the importance of strategic leadership in the sustainability of such initiative.
The study was conducted using a qualitative research approach. The future studies may use quantitative research approach or mixed methods research to allow triangulation and data accuracy. Quantitative studies use statistics to authenticate the findings through accepting or refuting of hypotheses. This will be essential in comprehensively coming to terms with the significance of strategic management in organisations.
Abdel-Maksoud, A.; Elbanna, S.; Mahama, H. & Pollanen, R. (2015). The use of performance information in strategic decision-making in public organizations. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 28(7), pp. 528-549.
Abdulkadir, M. (2012). Modelling and simulation of maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic system in Simulink model. In 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon), pp. 325-330. IEEE.
Adaletey, E. J. & George, T. J. (2019). The Relevance of Monitoring, Supervision and Evaluation of Stakeholder Participation in Electronic Governance Projects Implemented in Public Sector Institutions: A Review of Literature. Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume, 24, pp. 52-60.
Amason, A. C. & Ward, A. (2020). Strategic management: From theory to practice. UK: Routledge.
Babafemi, I. (2015). ‘Corporate Strategy, Planning & Performance Evaluation: A Survey of Literature’. Journal of Management Policies & Practices, 3(1), pp. 43–49.
Babbie, E. (2014). The Practice of Research. London: Cengage Learning Publications.
Bappy, M. M.; Ali, S. M.; Kabir, G. & Paul, S. K. (2019). Supply chain sustainability assessment with Dempster-Shafer evidence theory: Implications in cleaner production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 237, pp. 11-25.
Binning, A. (2017). Three challenges for renewable energy: https://www.energymanagermagazine.co.uk/three-challenges-for-renewable-energy.
Bogaert, P. (2016). Priority setting methods and transferability in health information. Adjacent Government.
Callistus, T. & Clinton, A. (2018). The role of monitoring and evaluation in construction project management. In International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration, pp. 571-582. Springer, Cham.
Cattani, G.; Porac, J. F. &Thomas, H. (2017). “Categories and competition.” Strategic Management Journal, 38(1), pp. 64–92.
Cooper, C. & Schindler, C. M. (2014). Oceania: A Tourism Handbook. New York: Channel View Pub.
Courtney, A. (2019). Evaluation of Indicators to Monitor Quality of Anthropometry Data during Fieldwork. Issue 162 of DHS working papers.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design, Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Delponte, I.; Pittaluga, I. & Schenone, C. (2017). Monitoring and evaluation of Sustainable Energy Action Plan: practice and perspective. Energy Policy, 100, pp. 9-17.
Desu, M. M. (2012). Sample size methodology. Elsevier.
Drucker, P. (1954). The Practice of Management. Harper & Row.
Fang, J.; He, H.; An, L. & Jin, G. (2019). The evaluation of the potential for the exploration and development of coalbed methane resources based on an improved uncertainty measure optimization model. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 37(1), pp. 315-331.
Feng, J.; Liu, J.; Feng, X.; Zhang, L.; Xiao, H. & Xia, Z., (2016). Towards malaria elimination: monitoring and evaluation of the “1-3-7” approach at the China–Myanmar border. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 95(4), pp. 806-810.
Flick, U. (2011). Introducing Research Methodology: A Beginner’s Guide to Doing Research Projects. London: Sage Publications.
Flick, U. (2014). Introducing Research Methodology: A Beginner’s Guide to Doing Research Projects. London: Sage Publications.
Gichunge, E. M. (2016). The Effect of Formal Strategic Management on Organisational Performance: A study of selected Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from The Impact of Strategic Management on Organisational Growth and Development.
Gracia, M. D. & Quezada, L. E. (2016). A framework for strategy formulation in sustainable supply chains: a case study in the electric industry.” NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking, 17(1), pp. 3–27.
Habib, A. & Hasan, M.M. (2017). Firm life cycle, corporate risk‐taking and investor sentiment. Accounting & Finance, 57(2), pp. 465-497.
Hair, Jr, J. F.; Wolfinbarger, M.; Money, A. H.; Samouel, P. & Page, M. J. (2015). Essentials of Business Research Methods. Business & Economics: Routledge.
Hill, C.W.; Jones, G. R. & Schilling, M. A. (2014). Strategic management: Theory & cases: An integrated approach. Cengage Learning.
Hitt, M. A.; Arregle, J. L. & Holmes Jr, R. M. (2020). Strategic Management Theory in a Post‐Pandemic and Non‐Ergodic World. Journal of Management Studies.
Johnsen, Å. (2015). Strategic management thinking and practice in the public sector: A strategic planning for all seasons? Financial Accountability & Management, 31(3), pp. 243-268.
Kaloop, M. R.; Elbeltagi, E.; Hu, J. W. & Elrefai, A. (2017). Recent advances of structures monitoring and evaluation using GPS-time series monitoring systems: A review. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(12), p. 382-391.
Keyes, J. (2016). Implementing the IT Balanced Scorecard: Aligning IT with Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Khosiev, B. N.; Ostaev, G.Y.; Gogaev, O.K.; Markovina, E.V.; Latysheva, A.I. & Konina, E.A. (2019). Strategic management and zootechnical control in pig-breeding enterprises: development of its information base. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 10(1), pp. 1267-1279.
Kumar, R. (2014). Research Methodology a Step-by-step Guide for Beginners. London: Sage Publications.
Lapshina, S. N. & Romanovskaia, E. M. (2019). The relevance of the use of electronic educational resources in professional education. In AIP Conference Proceedings AIP Publishing LLC.
Leedy, P. D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2014). Practical Research: Planning and Design.10th Edition. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Pearson Publications.
Leedy, P. D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2015). Practical Research: Planning and Design. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Publications.
Leskaj, E. (2017). The challenges faced by the strategic management of public organizations. Revista Administratie si Management Public (RAMP), (29), pp. 151-161.
Lu, L. T. (2017). Strategic planning for Xiaomi: smartphones, crisis, turning point. International Business Research, 10(8), pp. 149-161.
Mainardes, E. W.; Ferreira, J. J. & Raposo, M. L. (2018). Strategy and Strategic Management Concepts: Are they recognised by Management Students? Ekonomie a Management, 17(1), 344-356.
Maree, K. (2017). First Steps in Research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Martins, I. & Belo, O. (2017). A Balanced Scorecard Approach for Evaluating the Utility of a Data Warehousing System. Proceedings of the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS), pp. 633–645, Coimbra, Portugal.
McLellan, T. (2020). Impact, theory of change, and the horizons of scientific practice. Social Studies of Science: 030631272095083.
Morris, M. & Martin, L. (2015). Political Economy of Climate-relevant Change Policies: The Case of Renewable Energy in South Africa: Final Report for the Political Economy Analysis of Climate Change Policies (PEACH) Project. Cape Town: PRISM.
Nickasch, B.; Marnocha, S.; Grebe, L.; Scheelk, H. & Kuehl, C. (2016). What do I do next? Nurses confusion and uncertainty with ECG monitoring. Medsurg Nursing, 25(6), pp. 418-432.
Nueman, L. (2014). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Seventh Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Plaza‐Úbeda, J. A.; Pérez‐Valls, M.; Céspedes‐Lorente, J. J. & Payán‐Sánchez, B. (2020). The contribution of systems theory to sustainability in the growth contexts: The role of subsystems. Systems Research and Behavioural Science, 37(1), pp. 68-81.
Pollanen, R.; Abdel-Maksoud, A.; Elbanna, S. & Mahama, H. (2017). Relationships between strategic performance measures, strategic decision-making, and organizational performance: empirical evidence from Canadian public organizations. Public Management Review, 19(5), pp. 725-746.
Polyanin, A. V. & Dokukina, I.A. (2016). Implementation of strategic management in agricultural organizations: problems and prospects. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 55(7), pp. 99-113.
Porter, M.E. (1991). Towards a dynamic theory of strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 12(S2), pp. 95-117.
Rusman, R. F. Y. & Schuh, T. (2017). SMEs and smart manufacturing technology in South Sulawesi: a non-market strategy approach. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing.
Salkind, N. & Van Zyl, L.E. (2014). Research Methodology for the Economic and Management Sciences. New Jersey: Pearson Publications.
Salkind, N. J. (2013). Exploring research. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Saunders, M.; Lewis, P. & Thornhill., P. (2016). Research Methods for Business Students. 8th ed. Edinburg Gate: Pearson Education Limited.
Seppälä, P.; Hakanen, J. J.; Tolvanen, A. & Demerouti, E. (2018). A job resource-based intervention to boost work engagement and team innovativeness during organizational restructuring. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
Stam, K.; Peek, G. J. & Chan, P. (2018). Urban area development as an expansive learning process. The relevance of monitoring and evaluation.
StatsSA. (2018). StatsSA. Quarterly Labour Force Survey. http://www.statssa.gov.za/?p=11361.
Steiss, A.W. (2019). Strategic management for public and non-profit organizations. Routledge.
Tapera, C. (2014). The Importance of Strategic Management to Business Organizations. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 03, Number: 11, March-2014.
Thompson, A. A.; Strickland, A. J. & Gamble, J. E. (2016). Crafting and executing strategy: the quest for competitive advantage (concepts and cases). 20th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Trochim, W. (2012). Research methods knowledge base. http://www. socialresearchmethods. net/kb/desintro.htm.
Uhm, C. H.; Sung, C. S. & Park, J. Y. (2018). Understanding the accelerator from the resource-based perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Vaihinger, H. (2014). The philosophy of as if. Routledge.
Watson, R.; Wilson, H. N.; Smart, P. & Macdonald, E. K. (2018). Harnessing difference: a capability‐based framework for stakeholder engagement in environmental innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 35(2), pp. 254-279.
Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in Organizations. 8th Edition. Albany: State University of New York.
Zhang, M.; Zhou, J. & Zhou, R. (2018). Evaluating the sustainability of regional water resources based on improved generalized entropy method. Entropy, 20(9), pp. 715-731.
1 Centre for Academic Development, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa, Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2 MBA student, Mancosa College, South Africa, E-mail: email@example.com.