The effects of remittances from international migrants on labor supply in Cameroon

  • Amassangka Haman VALERE
Keywords: migrant remittances, labor supply, gender, standard of living


The purpose of this paper is to first determine the effect of remittances from international migrants on the labor supply in Cameroon. On the other hand, we analyze the effect of receiving these funds on the labor supply of members of beneficiary households according to gender and standard of living. We apply the IV-2SLS method on data from the fourth Cameroonian Household Survey carried out in 2014 (ECAM 4), through the consumer choice model of Becker (1965) adapted to the family economy. From this analysis, it follows that in general, there is a negative effect of remittances from international migrants on the labor supply in Cameroon.. The funds received lead to a decrease in hours worked for women while a slight increase is observed for men. Looking at household living standards, the results show that the reduction in working hours is localized only in poor and middle households, while no influence is observed in very poor, rich and very rich households.


Acosta, P., (2006), Labor Supply, School Attendance, and Remittances from International Migration: the Case of El Salvador, World Bank, Development Research Group, vol 39, pp 695–722.
Acosta, P., Fajnzylber, P., López, J.H., (2008), Remittances and Household Behavior: Evidence for Latin America, Remittances and Development: Lessons from Latin America, pp 133–170.
Adarkwa, M. (2015), Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth: Evidence from Selected West African Countries, African Humane Mobility Review, Vol. 1, No. 2.
Amuedo-Dorantes, C., Pozo, S., (2006), Migration, Remittances, and Male and Female Employment Patterns, The American Economic Review, vol 96, n°2, pp 222-226.
Azizi, S., (2018), The impacts of workers' remittances on human capital and labor supply in developing countries, Economic modeling, vol 75, pp 1-20.
Barne, D. ,Pirlea, F., (2019), Money sent home by workers now largest source of external financing in low- and middle-income countries (excluding China), World Bank.
Ben Porath, Y., (1973), Economic Analysis of Fertility in Israël: Point and Counterpoint, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 81, n° 2. Part II, mars-avril 1973.
Blunch , N-H., Verner, D., (2000), Revisiting the Link Between Poverty and Child Labour: the Ghanaian Experience, Policy Research Working Paper, n° 2488, Washington D. C., World Bank.
Cahuc, P., Zylberberg, A., (2001), Le marché du travail, Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, vol°41, pp 145-146.
Chami, R., Ernst, E., Fullenkamp, C., Oeking, A., (2018), Are Remittances Good for Labor Markets in LICs, MICs and Fragile States? Evidence from Cross-Country Data, IMF Working Papers, WP/18/102.
Chiappori, P.A., Fortin, B., Lacroix, G., (2002), Marriage market, divorce legislation and household labor supply, Journal of Political Economy, vol 110, n°1, pp 37-72.
Chiquiar, D., Hanson, H. G., (2005), International Migration, Self-Selection, and the Distribution of Wages: Evidence from Mexico and the United States, Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol 113, n° 2, pp 239-281.
Claire, Z., David, B. O., (2017), Migration, Transfers and Labor supply: Evidence from Haiti, Paris School of Economics, Université Paris-Dauphine, UMR DIAL.
Cox-Edwards, A., Rodríguez-Oreggia, E., (2009), Remittances and Labor Force Participation in Mexico: An Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching, World Development, vol 37, n°5, pp 1004-1014.
De Haas, H., (2008), The Myth of Invasion: The Inconvenient Realities of Migration from Africa to the European Union, Third World Quarterly, vol 29, n° 7, pp 1305-1322.
Funkhouser, E. (1992), Migration from Nicaragua: Some Recent Evidence, World Development, vol 20, n° 8, pp 1209-1218.
Guha, P., (2013), Macroeconomic Effects of International Remittances: The Case of Developing Economies, Economic Modelling, vol 33, n° 4, pp 292–305.
Johnson, W., Skinner, J., (1986), Labor Supply and Marital Separation, American Economic Review, vol 76, n° 3, pp 455-69.
Kalaj, E. H., (2009), Do Remittances Alter Labor Market Participation? A Study of Albania, MPRA, Paper n° 48271.
Kevin, W. N., Fabien, S., (2021), The Effects of Remittances on the Economic Growth of Cameroon, IOSR Journal of Humanities And Social Science, Volume 26,Issue 5, Series 7, pp 41-53.
Kim, N., (2007), The Impact of Remittances on Labor Supply: The Case of Jamaica, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper n° 4120, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Konica, N., Filer, R.K., (2009), Albanian Emigration: Causes and Consequences, South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, vol 1, pp 75-98.
Lachaud J.-P., (2008), Le travail des enfants et la pauvreté en Afrique : un réexamen appliqué au Burkina Faso, Économie et prévision, n° 186, pp 47-65.
McElroy, M. В., Homey, M.J., (1981), Nash-Bargained Household Decisions: Toward A Generalization of the Theory of Demand, International Economic Review, vol. 22, n° 2, pp 333-349.
Meka‘a, B. C., (2015), Transferts de fonds des migrants et dépenses des ménages : application au cas du Cameroun, Région et Développement, vol 41, pp 201-230.
Meka‘a, C.B., Mbebi, O.E., (2015), Le travail des enfants : uniquement un problème de pauvreté ?, Travail et Emploi, DOI : 10.4000/travailemploi.6683.
Molua, E.L. (2009), Migrants Remittances and Farm Production Decisions in Cameroon, Journal of Applied Science Research. Vol. 5, No 10, pp 1668-1675.
Murakami, E., Yamadaa, E., Sioson, E. P., (2021), The impact of migration and remittances on labor supply in Tajikistan, Journal of Asian Economics, 73 (2021) 101268.
Naiditch, C., Vranceanu, R., (2008), Transferts des migrants etoffre de travail dans un modèle de signalisation, Revue d'économie politique, vol 118, pp 513-540.
Nouetagni, S., Hamadou1, S., (2015), Impact différentié de la migration et des transferts sur les conditions de vie des ménages d’origine : le cas du Cameroun, STATECO, N°109, pp 49-66.
Papademetriou, D. G., Martin, P. L., (1991), The Unsettled Relationship Labor Migration and Economic Development, Greenwood Press, 336 p.
Petreski, M., (2019), Remittances and Labour Supply Revisited: New Evidence from the Macedonian Behavioural Tax and Benefit Microsimulation Model, Migration letters, vol 16, n° 2, pp 219-236.
Posso, A., (2012), Remittances and Aggregate Labor Supply: Evidence from Sixty-Six Developing Nations, The Developing Economies, vol 50, n°1, pp 25–39.
Rodriguez, E. R., Tiongson, E. R., (2001), Temporary Migration Overseas and Household Labour Supply: Evidence from Urban Philippines, International Migration Review, vol 35, n° 3, pp 709–725.
Sharma, A., Cárdenas, O., (2018), Les transferts de fonds et leur effet sur les indicateurs du marché du travail: illustration par le cas mexicain, Revue internationale du Travail, vol. 157, n° 2, pp 219-239.
Sousa, D. L., García-Suaza, A., (2018), Remittances and Labor Supply in The Northern Triangle, Poverty & Equity Global Practice Working Paper 172, World Bank.
Tessier, P., Wolff, F-C., (2005), Offre de travail et santé en France, Économie & prévision, n°168, pp 17-41.
Vadean, F., Randazzo, T., Piracha, M., (2017), Remittances, Labour Supply and Activity of Household Members Left-Behind, The Journal of Development Studies, vol, 55, n°2, pp 278-293.
Wooldridge, J., (2003), Introductory Econometrics: A modern approach, South-West College Publishing.