A Comparative Study About The Use Of Artificial Intelligence (AI) In Public Administration of Nordic states with other European Economic Sectors



Artificial Intelligence, Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), Digitized Public Services, EU Economic Trends, Public Administration


Artificial Intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing public administration in Nordic countries like Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. This integration of AI technologies is transforming governance practices, improving efficiency, service quality, and citizen engagement. The European Union tracks and quantifies the digitization of public and fiscal administration using the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) index, indicating the level of digitization at the European level. The study explores the use of AI in Nordic states, focusing on strategies and integration of AI technologies in service delivery processes. It examines the region’s strong digital infrastructure, emphasis on responsible data use, and high public trust in government. The research reviews policies, strategies, and case studies to understand the drivers, challenges, and outcomes of AI deployment in various administrative domains. It also compares the use of AI in Nordic Public Administration with other European Economic Sectors, identifying lessons learned and best practices for future implementation. The study aims to identify strengths and potential challenges for Nordic states in enhancing efficiency, transparency, and citizen engagement. The findings contribute to both scholarly discourse and practical policymaking by offering insights into the opportunities and challenges associated with AI adoption in Nordic public administration and further underscores the importance of fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, knowledge exchange, and international partnerships to maximize the benefits of AI while addressing concerns about fairness, equity, and societal impact. Ultimately, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the evolving role of AI in shaping the future of governance and public service delivery in the Nordic region.


Acemoglu, D. & Restrepo, P. (2019). The wrong kind of AI? Artificial intelligence and the future of labor demand. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper, No. 25682. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w25682.

Alhosani, K. & Alhashmi, S. (2024). Opportunities, challenges, and benefits of AI innovation in government services: a review. Discover Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 4.

Allioui, S. (2023). Artificial Intelligence at the European Court of Human Rights. Oxford Human Rights Hub. Retrieved from https://ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk/artificial-intelligence-will-we-trust-the-european-court-of-human-rights/.

Alshaib, B.; Al khatib, A.; Nuta, A.; Hamra, M.; Mishra, P.; Gautam, R. & Hussain, S. &. Zamfir, C.G. (2023). Fiscal Sustainability and Its Implications for Economic Growth in Egypt: An Empirical Analysis. Sage Open, Vol. 13(4).

Amaro, S. (2021, January 15). Dutch Government Resigns after Childcare Benefits Scandal. Retrieved from CNBC: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/01/15/dutch-government-resigns-after-childcare-benefits-scandal-.html.

ARM (2024). Plumerai: People Detection on Embedded Devices with Arm Helium Technology. Retrieved from Artificial Intelligence. AI Case Studies: https://www.arm.com/markets/artificial-intelligence/case-studies.

Broomfield, H. & Reutter, L. (2022). In Search of the Citizen in the Datafication of Public Administration. Big data & society, Vol. 9(1). Retrieved from https://ec-europa-finder.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?context=PC&vid=32EUC_INST:VU1&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=cdi_doaj_primary_oai_doaj_org_article_7ecf999c0f4d4bc39d4beb9c1d32884e.

Butt, J. (2023). The Impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the Efficiency of Administrative Decision Making Including Ethical & Legal Considerations and Comparative Study about Countries Already Incorporated AI for Administrative Decisions. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Juridica, Vol. 19(3), pp. 7-25. Retrieved from https://dj.univ-danubius.ro/index.php/AUDJ/article/view/256.

Butt, J. (2024). Analytical study of the world's first EU Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act. International Journal of Research and Publications, 3. Retrieved from https://ijrpr.com/uploads/V5ISSUE3/IJRPR24381.pdf.

Butt, J. (2024). Analytical study of the world's first EU Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act. International Journal of Research and Publications, 5(3), pp. 7343-7364. Retrieved from https://ijrpr.com/uploads/V5ISSUE3/IJRPR24381.pdf.

Carullo, G. (2023, September 19). Large Language Models for Transparent and Intelligible AI-Assisted Public Decision-Making. CERIDAP, No. 3, pp. 01-23.

Cazzaniga, M.; Jaumotte, F.; Li, L.; Melina, G.; Panton, A.; Pizzinelli, C. & Rockall, E. &. (2024). Gen-AI: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Work. Staff Discussion Notes, Vol. 2024(001). Retrieved from https://www.elibrary.imf.org/configurable/content/journals$002f006$002f2024$002f001$002farticle-A001-en.xml?t:ac=journals%24002f006%24002f2024%24002f001%24002farticle-A001-en.xml#A001ref33.

Cetina Presuel, R. & Martinez Sierra, J.M. (2023). The Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in Bureaucratic Decision-making: A Weberian Perspective. Digital Government: Research and Practice, Vol. 5(1), pp. 1–20.

Charmaine, C. (2023). Disruption From Above, the Middle and Below: Three Terrains of Governance. Review of International Studies, Vol. 49(1), pp. 37–52.

Correia, P.M.A.R.; Pedro, R.L.D.; Mendes, I.d.O. & Serra, A.D.C.S. (2024). The Challenges of Artificial Intelligence in Public Administration in the Framework of Smart Cities: Reflections and Legal Issues. Soc. Sci., Vol. 13(2), p. 75.

Csernatoni, R. (2024, March 06). Charting the Geopolitics and European Governance of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from https://carnegieeurope.eu/2024/03/06/charting-geopolitics-and-european-governance-of-artificial-intelligence-pub-91876 on March 20, 2024.

EDPB (2022). Data Protection Issues Arising in Connection with the Use of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from European Data Protection Board: https://edpb.europa.eu/news/national-news/2022/data-protection-issues-arising-connection-use-artificial-intelligence_en.

Fabrègue, B.; Portal, L. & Cockshaw, C. (2023). Using smart people to build smarter: How smart cities attract and retain highly skilled workers to drive innovation (Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland). Smart Cities and Regional Development (SCRD) Journal, 7(1), pp. 9-30. Retrieved from https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=1109300.

Ferreira, E. (2024). EU Official Urges Reinforced Public Admin Amid AI Regulation, Budget Constraints. Retrieved from PYMNTS.com: https://www.pymnts.com/cpi_posts/ftc-urged-to-enforce-rarely-used-antitrust-law-against-retail-giants/.

Florin, B. (2023). The Digitalization Process of Public Administration in European Union: Advances and Perspectives. Journal of Public Administration, Finance and Law, 29. Retrieved from https://www.jopafl.com/uploads/issue29/THE_DIGITALIZATION_PROCESS_OF_PUBLIC_ADMINISTRATION_IN_EUROPEAN_UNION.pdf.

Franchini, C. (2023, April 16). Current challenges and future prospects of administrative justice: an introduction. Fascicolo, No. 2, pp. 206-210. Retrieved from https://ceridap.eu/sfide-attuali-e-prospettive-future-della-giustizia-amministrativa-unintroduzione/?lng=en.

Geanta, M.; Cucos, B.; Boata, A.; Nuta, A. & Nuta, F. &. Semenov, V. (2023). The Ukrainian war and the pandemic: the impact on public health and the need for new health digital tools and the next level of intelligence. Medicni Perspektivi, Vol. 28(4), pp. 207–217.

GlobalData, P.b. (2024). Case studies: artificial intelligence in the defense industry. Retrieved from Global Defence Technology: https://defence.nridigital.com/global_defence_technology_aug23/case_studies_artificial_intelligence_defence_industry.

Groes, J.; Heggløv, E. & Andersson, L. (31 January, 2022,). How can Nordic governments successfully bridge the digital divide? Retrieved from EY: bridge the digital divide? EY. https://www.ey.com/en_fi/government-public-sector/how-can-nordic-governments-successfully-bridge-the-digital-divid.

Ignat, G.; Sargu, L. & Prigoreanu, I. (2022). Cloud Computing Technologies and the Economic Impact of Digitalization. EuroEconomica, Vol. 41(1). Retrieved from https://dj.univ-danubius.ro/index.php/EE/article/view/1850.

Johnston, S. (21 December, 2021,). Using machine technology. Retrieved from Revenue NSW: https://www.revenue.nsw.gov.au/news-media-releases/using-machine-technology.

Lamovšek, N. (2023). Analysis of Research on Artificial Intelligence in Public Administration: Literature Review and Textual Analysis. Central European Public Administration Review, Vol. (21)2, pp. 77–96. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=4660278.

Madan, R. & Ashok, M. (2024). Making Sense of AI Benefits: A Mixed-method Study in Canadian Public Administration. Information Systems Frontiers.

Makridakis, S. (2017). The forthcoming Artificial Intelligence (AI) revolution: Its impact on society and firms. Futures, 46-60. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016328717300046.

Marienfeldt, J. (2024). Does Digital Government Hollow Out the Essence of Street-Level Bureaucracy? A Systematic Literature Review of How Digital Tools' Foster Curtailment, Enablement and Continuation of Street-Level Decision-Making. Social Policy & Administration, Vol. 58(1), pp. 1-17.

Medaglia, R. & Gil-Garcia, J. &. Pardo, T.A. (2023). Artificial Intelligence in Government: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 41(1), pp. 123-140.

Mügge, D. (2024). EU AI sovereignty: for whom, to what end, and to whose benefit? Journal of European Public Policy. Retrieved March 20, 2024, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13501763.2024.2318475?scroll=top&needAccess=true.

Nuta, A.C.; Cristea, D.; Vasile, A.; Nuţă, F.M.; Petrea, S.M. & Tiron Tudor, A. &. Chivu, Luminita (2024). Exploring the causal relationship between PM 2.5 air pollution and urban areas economic welf Chivu, Luminita are and social-wellbeing: Evidence form 15 European capitals European capitals, food prices, land prices, urban pollution, urban traffic. Sustainable Development, pp. 1-26. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sd.2920.

Nuta, F. (2023). Too Many Crises or Just Another Leap Forward – An Essay. EuroEconomica, Vol. 42(2), pp. 7-9. Retrieved from https://dj.univ-danubius.ro/index.php/EE/article/view/2642.

Nuţă, F.; Marcuta, A.; Marcuta, L. &. Nuta, A.C. (2024). National Bank of Romania: Recent Challenges. Governance and Policy Transformations in Central Banking, pp. 156-168.

OECD (2023). Using artificial intelligence for proactive implementation of public policies and services. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Oliveira, F.P.; Serra, A.D.; Sousa, L.d. & Beatriz, M. (2023). O Caminho Trilhado Em Portugal No Quadro Da Descentralização Administrativa/ The Path Taken in Portugal Within the Framework of Administrative Decentralization. Lex Humana, Vol. 15(3), pp. 344–64. Retrieved from https://seer.ucp.br/seer/index.php/LexHumana/article/view/2534.

Olsen, H.; Hildebrandt, T.; Wiesener, C. & Larsen, M. &. Flügge, A.W.A (2024). The Right to Transparency in Public Governance: Freedom of Information and the Use of Artificial Intelligence by Public Agencies. Digital Government: Research and Practice, Vol. 5(1), pp. 1-15.

Ponce, J. (2005). Good administration and administrative procedures. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 12(2), pp. 551-588. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/GLS.2005.12.2.551.

Pullella, P. (14 December, 2023,). Reuters. Retrieved from Pope Francis calls for binding global treaty to regulate AI: https://www.reuters.com/technology/pope-calls-binding-global-treaty-artificial-intelligence-2023-12-14/.

Quintas, D.; de Oliveira Mendes, I.; Correia, P. &. Serra, A.D.C.S. (2023). A Qualidade no Setor Público da Saúde: A Pandemia como Propulsor de Novos Processos de Modernização na Área da Saúde/ Quality in the Public Health Sector: The Pandemic as a Driver of New Modernization Processes in the Health Area. Synesis, Vol. 15(3), pp. 48-68. Retrieved from https://seer.ucp.br/seer/index.php/synesis/article/view/2411.

Re Ferrè, G. (2024). Digitalizing healthcare in Italy and Germany: the Electronic Health Record and m-Health regulation as key for e-Health. Societas Iuris Public Europaei (SIPE).

*** (2024). Research Handbook on Public Management and Artificial Intelligence. Cheltenham. UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Rzycki, B.; Duenas-Cid, D. & Przegalińska, A. (2024). Chapter 7: Application of artificial intelligence by Poland's public administration. In Research Handbook on Public Management and Artificial Intelligence. pp. 119–137. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Sanchez-Graells, A. (2024). Responsibly Buying Artificial Intelligence: A Regulatory Hallucination. Current Legal Problems, Vol. 20. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=4643273.

Seehuus, R.; Kuivaniemi, E.; Täkte, C.; Karlsen, J.; Linder, L.; Kolari, S. & Schrode, M. (2022). The Nordic AI and data ecosystem. Retrieved from https://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1667628/FULLTEXT02.pdf.

Torrent-Sellens, J. (2020). The artificial intelligence economy. Retrieved from https://revistaidees.cat/en/the-artificial-intelligence-economy/#note-02.

van Noordt, C.; Misuraca, G. & Mergel, I. (2024). Chapter 13: Analysis of driving public values of AI initiatives in government in Europe. Political Science and Public Policy, pp. 226–244.

Waage, M.; Weinbach, B. & Larsen, Ø. (2024). Digital and AI Maturity of Enterprises in Sogn Og Fjordane, a Rural Region of Norway. AI, Data and Digitalization. SAIDD 2023. Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 1810. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-53770-7_13.

*** (13 September, 2023). State of the Union. Address by President Von der Leyen. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/ov/speech_23_4426.

*** (2022). The Nordic State of AI. The 2022 Report. 3rd Edition.

*** European Data Protection Board (2022). Data Protection Issues Arising in Connection with the Use of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from https://edpb.europa.eu/news/national-news/2022/data-protection-issues-arising-connection-use-artificial-intelligence_en.

*** International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) (March 20, 2024). What is artificial intelligence (AI)? Retrieved from https://www.ibm.com/topics/artificial-intelligence on.

*** World Bank (2020). Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector: Maximizing Opportunities, Managing Risks. Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10986/35317.




How to Cite

Butt, J. (2024). A Comparative Study About The Use Of Artificial Intelligence (AI) In Public Administration of Nordic states with other European Economic Sectors. EuroEconomica, 43(1), 40–66. Retrieved from https://dj.univ-danubius.ro/index.php/EE/article/view/2740