Evaluating the Significance of Strategic Management on the Monitoring and Evaluation of Secondary Schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa

  • Jeremiah Madzimure Centre for Academic Development, Vaal University of Technology, P.Bag x021, Vanderbijlpark, Gauteng Province, South Africa, 1900
  • Philemon Mashishi Mancosa College, South Africa
Keywords: Strategic management; SMEs; monitoring and evaluation.


The study is an evaluation of the significance of strategic management on the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The management of monitoring and evaluation systems for secondary schools is one of fundamentally important educational development and improvement initiatives in South Africa. Nevertheless, the efficiency of monitoring and evaluation has been under scrutiny considering the deteriorating standards of secondary education. This brought the question on how the systems are managed hence provoking the significance of strategic management on monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools while drawing inferences in the Gauteng Schools Governing Bodies. The study is a qualitative study where data was collected using interviews from a sample of 10 participants. The sample was obtained using a non-probability sampling executed using a purposive sampling technique. The elicited views and opinions were thematically analysed where arguments were arranged in codes generated from patterns of meaning and recurrence. The study however noted that monitoring and evaluation of secondary education is challenged by lack of communication and coordination, poor reporting systems and insufficiency of usable data. Furthermore, the strategic management has been established as very crucial in monitoring and evaluation considering how it reduces uncertainty and limits resistance to change in monitoring and evaluation and identifies strategic advantages of the organisation. In the same vein, considering the significance of strategic management there are various interventions that can be adopted to improve monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. The organisations must adopt a human-centered design approach, improve collection and analysis of monitoring and evaluation data and embracing strategic management underpinnings such as intensive planning and coordination.


Key words: Strategic management; SMEs; monitoring and evaluation.

JEL Classification: I21, I25, M10, M14

Author Biography

Philemon Mashishi, Mancosa College, South Africa

MBA student at Mancosa College (2020)


Abdel-Maksoud, A., Elbanna, S., Mahama, H. and Pollanen, R., 2015. The use of performance information in strategic decision-making in public organizations. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 28(7), pp.528-549.
Abdulkadir, M. 2012, December. Modelling and simulation of maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic system in Simulink model. In 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon) (pp. 325-330). IEEE.
Adaletey, E.J. and George, T.J., 2019. The Relevance of Monitoring, Supervision and Evaluation of Stakeholder Participation in Electronic Governance Projects Implemented in Public Sector Institutions: A Review of Literature. Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume, 24, pp.52-60.
Amason, A.C. and Ward, A., 2020. Strategic management: From theory to practice. Routledge.
Babafemi, I. 2015. ‘Corporate Strategy, Planning & Performance Evaluation: A Survey of Literature’. Journal of Management Policies & Practices, 3(1): 43–49.
Babbie, E. 2014. The Practice of Research. London: Cengage Learning Publications
Bappy, M.M., Ali, S.M., Kabir, G. & Paul, S.K., 2019. Supply chain sustainability assessment with Dempster-Shafer evidence theory: Implications in cleaner production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 237, p.11
Binning, A. 2017. Three challenges for renewable energy: https://www.energymanagermagazine.co.uk/three-challenges-for-renewable-energy/ [Date of Access: 25 August 2020].
Bogaert, P. 2016. Priority setting methods and transferability in health information. Adjacent Government, November 2016.
Callistus, T. and Clinton, A., 2018, January. The role of monitoring and evaluation in construction project management. In International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (pp. 571-582). Springer, Cham.
Cattani, G., Porac, J. F, and Thomas, H. 2017. “Categories and competition.” Strategic Management Journal, 38(1), pp. 64–92,
Cooper, C. and Schindler, C. M. 2014. Oceania: A Tourism Handbook. New York: Channel View Pub.
Courtney, A. 2019. Evaluation of Indicators to Monitor Quality of Anthropometry Data During Fieldwork. Issue 162 of DHS working papers
Creswell, J.W. 2014. Research Design, Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Delponte, I., Pittaluga, I. and Schenone, C., 2017. Monitoring and evaluation of Sustainable Energy Action Plan: practice and perspective. Energy Policy, 100, pp.9-17.
Desu, M.M., 2012. Sample size methodology. Elsevier.
Drucker, P. 1954. The Practice of Management. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-091316-8
Fang, J., He, H., An, L. & Jin, G., 2019. The evaluation of the potential for the exploration and development of coalbed methane resources based on an improved uncertainty measure optimization model. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 37(1), pp.315-331.
Feng, J., Liu, J., Feng, X., Zhang, L., Xiao, H. and Xia, Z., 2016. Towards malaria elimination: monitoring and evaluation of the “1-3-7” approach at the China–Myanmar border. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 95(4), pp.806-810.
Flick, U. 2011. Introducing Research Methodology: A Beginner’s Guide to Doing Research Projects. London: Sage Publications.
Flick, U. 2014. Introducing Research Methodology: A Beginner’s Guide to Doing Research Projects. London: Sage Publications.
Gichunge, E. M. 2016. The Effect of Formal Strategic Management on Organisational Performance: A study of selected Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from The Impact of Strategic Management on Organisational Growth and Development.
Gracia, M. D, and Quezada, L. E. 2016. “A framework for strategy formulation in sustainable supply chains: a case study in the electric industry.” NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking, 17(1), pp. 3–27
Habib, A. and Hasan, M.M., 2017. Firm life cycle, corporate risk‐taking and investor sentiment. Accounting & Finance, 57(2), pp.465-497.
Hair, Jr, J. F., Wolfinbarger, M., Money, A. H., Samouel, P and Page, M. J. 2015. Essentials of Business Research Methods. Business & Economics: Routledge
Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014. Strategic management: Theory & cases: An integrated approach. Cengage Learning.
Hitt, M.A., Arregle, J.L. and Holmes Jr, R.M., 2020. Strategic Management Theory in a Post‐Pandemic and Non‐Ergodic World. Journal of Management Studies.
Johnsen, Å. 2015. Strategic management thinking and practice in the public sector: A strategic planning for all seasons?. Financial Accountability & Management, 31(3), pp.243-268.
Kaloop, M.R., Elbeltagi, E., Hu, J.W. and Elrefai, A., 2017. Recent advances of structures monitoring and evaluation using GPS-time series monitoring systems: A review. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(12), p.382.
Keyes, J. 2016. Implementing the IT Balanced Scorecard: Aligning IT with Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group
Khosiev, B.N., Ostaev, G.Y., Gogaev, O.K., Markovina, E.V., Latysheva, A.I. and Konina, E.A., 2019. Strategic management and zootechnical control in pig-breeding enterprises: development of its information base. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 10(1), pp.1267-1279.
Kumar, R. 2014. Research Methodology a Step-by-step Guide for Beginners. London: Sage Publications
Lapshina, S.N. and Romanovskaia, E.M., 2019, July. The relevance of the use of electronic educational resources in professional education. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2116, No. 1, p. 430004). AIP Publishing LLC.
Leedy, P. D and Ormrod, J. E. 2014. Practical Research: Planning and Design.10th Edition, Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Pearson Publications.
Leedy, P.D. and Ormrod, J.E. 2015. Practical Research: Planning and Design. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Publications.
Leskaj, E., 2017. The challenges faced by the strategic management of public organizations. Revista» Administratie si Management Public «(RAMP), (29), pp.151-161.
Lu, L. T. 2017. “Strategic planning for Xiaomi: smartphones, crisis, turning point,” International Business Research, 10(8) p. 149
Mainardes, E. W., Ferreira, J. J. and Raposo, M. L. 2018. ‘Strategy and Strategic Management Concepts: Are they recognised by Management Students?’, Ekonomie a Management, 17(1).
Maree, K. 2017. First Steps in Research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Martins, I, and Belo, O. 2017. “A Balanced Scorecard Approach for Evaluating the Utility of a Data Warehousing System,” in Proceedings of the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS), pp. 633–645, Coimbra, Portugal,
McLellan, T. 2020 "Impact, theory of change, and the horizons of scientific practice". Social Studies of Science: 030631272095083. doi:10.1177/0306312720950830. ISSN 0306-3127.
Morris, M., and Martin, L. 2015. Political Economy of Climate-relevant Change Policies: The Case of Renewable Energy in South Africa: Final Report for the Political Economy Analysis of Climate Change Policies (PEACH) Project. Cape Town: PRISM.
Nickasch, B., Marnocha, S., Grebe, L., Scheelk, H. and Kuehl, C., 2016. 'What do I do next?'Nurses' confusion and uncertainty with ECG monitoring. Medsurg Nursing, 25(6), p.418.
Nueman, L. 2014. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Seventh Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Plaza‐Úbeda, J.A., Pérez‐Valls, M., Céspedes‐Lorente, J.J. & Payán‐Sánchez, B., 2020. The contribution of systems theory to sustainability in the growth contexts: The role of subsystems. Systems Research and Behavioural Science, 37(1), pp.68-81.
Pollanen, R., Abdel-Maksoud, A., Elbanna, S., and Mahama, H., 2017. Relationships between strategic performance measures, strategic decision-making, and organizational performance: empirical evidence from Canadian public organizations. Public Management Review, 19(5), pp.725-746.
Polyanin, A.V. and Dokukina, I.A., 2016. Implementation of strategic management in agricultural organizations: problems and prospects. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 55(7).
Porter, M.E., 1991. Towards a dynamic theory of strategy. Strategic management journal, 12(S2), pp.95-117.
Rusman, R. F. Y and Schuh, T. 2017 SMEs and smart manufacturing technology in South Sulawesi: a non market strategy approach. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 575, No. 1, p. 012176). IOP Publishing.
Salkind, N. and Van Zyl, L.E., 2014. Research Methodology for The Economic and Management Sciences. New Jersey: Pearson Publications.
Salkind, N.J. 2013. Exploring research. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill. 2016. Research Methods for Business Students. 8th ed. Edinburg Gate: Pearson Education Limited.
Seppälä, P., Hakanen, J.J., Tolvanen, A. & Demerouti, E., 2018. A job resource-based intervention to boost work engagement and team innovativeness during organizational restructuring. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
Stam, K., Peek, G.J. and Chan, P., 2018. Urban area development as an expansive learning process: The relevance of monitoring and evaluation.
StatsSA. 2018. StatsSA. Retrieved August 29, 2018, from Quarterly Labour Force Survey: http://www.statssa.gov.za/?p=11361
Steiss, A.W., 2019. Strategic management for public and non-profit organizations. Routledge
Tapera .2014. The Importance of Strategic Management to Business Organizations. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 03, Number: 11, March-2014
Thompson, A.A., Strickland, A.J. & Gamble, J.E. 2016. Crafting and executing strategy: the quest for competitive advantage (concepts and cases). 20th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Trochim, W., 2012. MK (2006). Research methods knowledge base.[Online] Available: http://www. socialresearchmethods. net/kb/desintro. htm [7 June 2007].
Uhm, C.H., Sung, C.S. & Park, J.Y., 2018. Understanding the accelerator from the resource-based perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Vaihinger, H., 2014. The philosophy of as if. Routledge.
Watson, R., Wilson, H.N., Smart, P., and Macdonald, E.K., 2018. Harnessing difference: a capability‐based framework for stakeholder engagement in environmental innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 35(2), pp.254-279.
Yukl, G. A. 2013. Leadership in Organizations. 8th Edition. Albany: State University of New York.
Zhang, M., Zhou, J. & Zhou, R., 2018. Evaluating the sustainability of regional water resources based on improved generalized entropy method. Entropy, 20(9), p.715.