Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlate to the Application and Use of Social Media in Informal Sector in Southwest Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

Social media use in the informal sector in Nigeria

  • Taiwo Kolawole Federal University Oye-Ekiti
  • Oluwole Akinyemi Atere Dept of Sociology, Olabisi Onabanjo Ago-Iwoye
  • Olugbenga Adeyemi Dept of Demigraphy and social statistics FUOYE
  • Niyi Akingbe Dept of English and Literary studies, FUOYE
Keywords: Business, cybercrime and economy.

Abstract

The descriptive study focused on the socio-demographic variables of men and women as a correlate to the adoption and use of social media in the informal sector in southwestern Nigeria. The study took place in the southwestern part of Nigeria which is made up of six states. Four out of the six states were purposively selected for this study they comprise Lagos, Oyo, Ondo and Ekiti states. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to collect quantitative data for the study. A sample size of 200 respondents was selected in each state totaling 800 respondents using the convenience sampling technique. In all, 755 questionnaires were finally sorted and analysed for this study. The IBM SPSS version 21 was used to analysed the quantitative data. The findings revealed that 50.5% and 42.5% of male and female respectively have heard of social media, 2.6% men and 4.0% women heard about social media in less than 6 months while 31.7% men and 25.4% women heard about social media for over 6 years. The result of cross tabulation of age and social media use showed that 20.9% male and 14.6% female within age 15-25 years said yes, they use social media for business. In respect to religion, 41.2% male and 31.7% female who are Christians also said yes, they use social media for business. The educational qualification of the respondents indicated that all respondents were literate at different levels use social media for businesses even those who do not have formal education (0.3% men and 0.5% women) also use social media for their various business. On marital status, 28.6% of single but never marry men and 26.8% of married women said yes, they use social media for business and result for ethnicity revealed that among the Yoruba, 41.9% men and 37.8% women also use social media for business. The study concluded that none of the socio-demographic variables of people in the informal sector in southwestern Nigeria determine of application and use of social media to improve or boost their business to global standard except ethnicity of the people which may be misinterpreted for the rate of cybercrime in Nigeria and globally.

Author Biographies

Oluwole Akinyemi Atere, Dept of Sociology, Olabisi Onabanjo Ago-Iwoye

He is a Prof of criminology in Nigeria

Olugbenga Adeyemi, Dept of Demigraphy and social statistics FUOYE

He is a Prof of demography

Niyi Akingbe, Dept of English and Literary studies, FUOYE

He is a Prof of English

References

Allen, J.P., Evans, M.A., Hare, A.L., & Mikami, A.Y. (2010). Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults’ Communication on Social Networking Websites. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 46‐56. doi: 10.1037/a0017420.
Bargh, J.A. McKenna, K.Y. & Fitzsimons, G.M., (2002). "Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the “true self” on the Internet," Journal of social issues, 58(1), pp. 33-48.
Bonnet, F., Joann, V. and Chen, M. (2019). Women and Men in the Informal Economy – A Statistical Brief. Manchester, UK: WIEGO.
Bolino, M.C. & Turnley, W.H. (2003). "More than one way to make an impression: Exploring profiles of impression management," Journal of Management, 29(2), pp. 141-160.
Burke M., Marlow C., Lento T. (2010). Social Network Activity and Social Well-Being. CHI'10.

Eagly, A. (1987). "Sex differences in social behavior: A socialrole interpretation Erlbaum," Hillsdale, New Jersey.
Eckes, T. (2002). "Paternalistic and envious gender stereotypes: Testing predictions from the stereotype content model," Sex Roles, 47(3-4), pp. 99-114.
Etim, E. and Daramola, O. (2020). The Informal Sector and Economic Growth of South Africa and Nigeria: A Comparative Systematic Review. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. Vol. 6, 134.
Fiske, S.T., Cuddy, A.J., Glick, P. & Xu, J. (2002). "A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition," Journal of personality and social psychology, 82(6), p. 878.
Fleming, J.H. Darley, J.M. Hilton, J.L & Kojetin, B.A. (1990). "Multiple audience problem: a strategic communication perspective on social perception," Journal of personality and social psychology, 58(4), p. 593.
Goffman, E. (1978). The presentation of self in everyday life. Doubleday and Co, New York.
International Labour Organization (ILO). (2020). Informal Economy: More than 60 per cent of the World’s Employed Population Are in the Informal Economy. 2018. Available online: https//www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_627189/lang-en/index.htm.
Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. (2002). Internet paradox revisited. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 49–74.
Kulik, C.T. & Olekalns, M. (2012). "Negotiating the gender divide lessons from the negotiation and organizational behavior literatures," Journal of Management, 38(4), pp. 1387-1415.
Leary, M.R. (1995). Self-presentation: Impression management and interpersonal behavior: Brown & Benchmark Publishers.
Liu, (2013). Can Facebook use induce well-being? Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16, 674–678.
Madera, J.M. (2012). "Using social networking websites as a selection tool: The role of selection process fairness and job pursuit intentions," International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), pp. 1276-1282.
Manago, A. M., Taylor, T., & Greenfield, P. M. (2012). .Me and My 400 Friends: The Anatomy of College Students' Facebook Networks, Their Communication Patterns, and Well-Being. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.
Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 227−238.
Rui, J & Stefanone, M.A. (2013)."Strategic selfpresentation online: A cross-cultural study," Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), pp. 110-118.
Roth, P.L., Bobko, P., Van Iddekinge, C.H, & Thatcher, J.B. (2013). "Social media in employee-selection-related decisions a research agenda for uncharted territory," Journal of Management, p. 0149206313503018.
Rudman, L.A. (1998). "Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: the costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management," Journal of personality and social psychology, 74(3), p. 629.
Rudman, L.A. and Glick, P. (1999). "Feminized management and backlash toward agentic women: the hidden costs to women of a kinder, gentler image of middle managers,"Journal of personality and social psychology, 77(5), p. 1004.
Vitak, J. (2012). "The impact of context collapse and privacy on social network site disclosures," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(4), pp. 451-470.
Slovensky, R & Ross, W.H. (2012). "Should human resource managers use social media to screen job applicants? " Managerial and legal issues in the USA, info, 14(1), pp. 55-69.
Zz.Zz., (2016). Global Social Network Users World Wide, 2016. Statistics.com.
Swan, W. B., (2011). “Self-Verification Theory,” in Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology, 2, Los Angeles, CA, UA: Sage Publications, pp. 23–42.
Published
2021-11-17
Section
Articles