Agriculture, Food Security and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: Cointegration and Granger Causality Approach


  • Obiakor Rowland Tochukwu Babcock University
  • Wahid Damilola Olanipekun American International University, West Africa.
  • Olufemi Samuel Omoyele Department of Business Administration and Marketing, Redeemer’s University
  • Timothy Ayomitunde Aderemi Bells University of Technology, Ota


Agricultural value Added; Food Production Index; GDP per Capita; Nigeria


Provision of sufficient food and elimination of abject poverty have usually been the conventional benefits of agriculture to any society. Meanwhile, despite the fact that Nigeria is an agrarian society, food insecurity and poverty have become the issues of concern among both scholars and policymakers in the recent times. Against this backdrop, this study examined the nexus among agriculture, food security and poverty reduction in Nigeria from 1990 to 2019 within the framework of Cointegration and Granger Causality approach. Data was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the World Development Indicators respectively. The following are the major results that emanated from the study. A long run equilibrium relationship exists among agricultural valued added, food production index and GDP per capita in Nigeria. Similarly, there is a unidirectional causality which flows from food production index to poverty reduction in Nigeria. In the same vein, one way causality flows from poverty reduction to agricultural value added in the country. Consequently, this study makes the following recommendation for the policymakers in Nigeria, and other African countries by extension, that agricultural value added and food production are the important variables that cannot be undermined when poverty reduction occupies the central focus of the policymakers. Therefore, any time these policymakers want to reduce poverty, policies that will drive agricultural value added and food production should be embarked upon. 


Adebayo, B. (2018). Nigeria overtakes India in extreme poverty ranking [Online]. Accessed 21 December, 2018. < indiaextreme-poverty-intl/index.html>
Aderemi, T.A., Amusa, B.O., Elufisian, O.O. and Abalaba, B.P. (2020). Does Capital Flight Move Nigeria to the World`s Poverty Headquarters? An Implication for Sustainable Development. . Journal of Academic Research in Economics, 12(1), 31-44.
Aderemi, T. A., Wahid D. O., Ayodeji, G. B., Christiana Onyohu Hassan, C. O., Osabohien., R. and Azuh, D. E. (2021). Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: An Implication for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). African Journal of Business and Economic Research (AJBER),
Amaechi L. N. (2018). Food security and sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, 5(6), 4765-4768.
Ayodeji E.A., Oladokun, B.S. (2018). Agricultural productivity and poverty reduction in Nigeria (2000- 2016). International Journal of Innovative Research & Development, 7(9): 330-338.
Central Bank of Nigeria (1999) Nigeria’s development prospect’s: poverty assessment and alleviation study. Research Department, Abuja
Ebere, E. E., Oresanwo, A. M., Omogboye, M. A. & Aderemi, T. A. (2021). Would Agricultural Credit Sustain Agricultural Output in Nigeria? An Empirical Perspective. The Journal of Accounting and Management, 11(3), 76-83.
EIU (2019). Global food security index (2019). Strengthening the food systems and the environment through innovation and investment. A report from The Economist Intelligence Unit.
Etim, E. E., Duke, O. O., & Ogbinyi, O. J. (2017). The implications of food insecurity, poverty and hunger on Nigeria’s national security. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1-10
Gassner, A., Harris, D., Mausch, K., Terheggen, A., Lopes, C., Finlayson, R. F., & Dobie, P. (2019). Poverty eradication and food security through agriculture in Africa: Rethinking objectives and entry points. Outlook on Agriculture, 48(4), 309-315.
John, M. A., & Dankawu, M. U. (2018). Effect of Agriculture on poverty reduction in Nigeria: A multifaceted approach using principal component analysis. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 23(6), 35-43.
Kilima, F. T. M., Tarimo, A. J. P., Johnsen, F. H., Nchimbi-Msolla, S., Mbaga, S., Sesabo, J., ... & Iranga, G. (2013). The impact of agricultural research on poverty and income distribution: A case study of selected on-farm research projects at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 12(1).
Obiakor, R. T. Omoyele, O. S, Olanipekun, W. D. & Aderemi, T. A. (2021). Is Agriculture still a Strong Force in Employment Generation in Nigeria? An Empirical Investigation. Euro Economica, 40(2), 90-100.
Omodero, C. O. Sustainable Agriculture, Food Production and Poverty Lessening in Nigeria. Transport, 3, 6.
Oriola, E. O. (2009). A framework for food security and poverty reduction in Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1), 132-139.
Osabohien, R., Matthew, O., Gershon, O., Ogunbiyi, T., Nwosu, E. (2019). Agriculture development, employment generation and poverty reduction in West Africa. The Open Agriculture Journal, 13: 82-89. [
World Bank (1998) Income Expressed As GDP per Capita PPP US
World Bank (2000) World Bank development report. Oxford University Press, New York
World Bank (2016) Poverty and shared prosperity: taking on inequality. World Bank, Washington, DC




How to Cite

Tochukwu, O. R., Damilola Olanipekun, W., Omoyele, O. S., & Aderemi, T. A. (2022). Agriculture, Food Security and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: Cointegration and Granger Causality Approach : Array. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica, 18(1). Retrieved from



Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

Most read articles by the same author(s)