Lausanne Peace Treaty - the Turkish-Romanian Joint Arbitration Court Case Study: Nikola Kalfa’s Case

  • Serdar Goktas University of Bayburt
  • Nilghiun Ismail The University of Giresun
Keywords: Turkey-Romania relations; Turkish-Romanian legal agreements; Greek citizen; Romanian citizenship

Abstract

The aim of this study are the relationships between Turkey and Romania, states with strong political, economic and socio-cultural ties, deeply rooted in history. Romania, which remained under the administration of the Ottoman State for several centuries, gained its independence after the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877-1878. Achieving its independence did not cause hostility between the two states, but Turkey-Romania relations were discontinued during World War I, when Romania joined the Allied Powers / Entente. Although relations between the two states cooled in 1916, they re-established in 1922. The new relations between the two states expressed not only good intentions and principles of assistance, but were based on a fair and solid basis of cooperation. After 1923, when the Lausanne Peace Treaty was signed, relations between Turkey and Romania headed a different direction. Lausanne Peace Traty established some joint courts, and one of them  is the Joint Turkish-Romanian Arbitration Court, which aimed to reach solutions to old, contested issues between the two states, but also for issues between the state and its citizen. This paper is a novelty in the field, because so far not all aspects of legal and economic relations between the two states have been debated. Relationships between Romania and Turkey were restored after the First World War and the Lausanne Peace Treaty.

The body of the study, based on Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi (Directorate of the State Archives), BCA, and The National Archives of the United States, Washington deals with the functioning of joint courts, emphasizing the nature of the cases the courts deal with, and discusses in detail Nikola Kalfa's case, which was debated by the Turkish-Romanian Joint Arbitration Court.

The final lines highlight the influences of the Lausanne Peace Treaty on social and economic relations between the two states, Romania and Turkey. The study, “Lausanne Peace Treaty and the Turkish-Romanian Joint Arbitration Court. Case Study: Nikola Kalfa’s Case” is useful for domain researchers, for students interesed in social history, economics, last but not least for studies in international property law. This study can be useful for master and doctoral students in the field of history, economics and law.

Author Biographies

Serdar Goktas, University of Bayburt

Lecturer Ph.D., the Faculty of Humanities and Public

Nilghiun Ismail, The University of Giresun

Lecturer Ph.D.

References

Unpublished sources
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Kararlar Daire Başkanlığı/ Decisions Department (1920-1928), 30-18-1-1/ 13-17-19, 25 Mart/Mars 1925.
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Kararlar Daire Başkanlığı/ Decisions of the Department (1920-1928), 30-18-1-1/14-4-10, 24 Mayıs/May 1925.
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Kararlar Daire Başkanlığı/Decisions Department (1920-1928), 30-18-1-1/19-30-13, 6 Mayıs/May 1926.
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Muamelat Genel Müdürlüğü/General Directorate of Transaction, 30-10-0-0 / 45-288-1, Dosya Ek: 34, 25 Mayıs 1926.
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Kararlar Daire Başkanlığı/Decisions Department (1920-1928), 30-18-1-1/24-32-14, Dosya Ek: 35-12, 22 Mayıs 1927.
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Muamelat Genel Müdürlüğü/ General Directorate of Transaction, 30.10.0.0/45.288.2, 15 Eylül, September, 1927.
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Kararlar Daire Başkanlığı/Decisions Department (1920-1928), 30-18-1-1/30-56-9, Dosya Ek: 35-16, 9 Eylül/September, 1928.
Başkanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi/Directorate of the State Archives, BCA, Kararlar Daire Başkanlığı/Decisions Department (1928- ), 30-18-1-2/41-92-20 Dosya Ek: 24-16, 31 Aralık/December, 1933.
The National Archives of the United States, Washington, Political Relations Of States, Relations; Bi-Lateral Treaties, Political., War. Peace. Friendship. Alliance. Non-Aggression., Turkey And Romania, Neutral Commerce, Decimal File May 9, 1928- July 22. 767.71112, Serial No: 303, p. 1-3.
The National Archives of the United States, Political Relations Of States, Relations; Bi-Lateral Treaties, Political., War. Peace. Friendship. Alliance. Non-Aggression., Turkey And Romania, Neutral Commerce, Decimal File May 9, 1928- July 22. 767.71112, Serial No: 395, p. 1-2.

Published sources
“Lozan Barış Antlaşması/ The Lausanne Peace Treaty”, 1931, Düstur, 3. Tertip, Cilt 5, 11 Ağustos 1339/1923-19 Teşrinievvel/October, 1340/1924, İstanbul: Necmi İstiklal Matbaası, pp.93-99.
Lozan Barış Konferansı Tutanaklar-Belgeler/Lausanne Peace Conference Minutes-Documents, Çeviren/translated by: Seha Lütfü Meray, İkinci Takım, Cilt II, 3. Baskı/3rd edition, İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2001.
“Türk-Romen Mahkeme-i Hakemiyesindeki Hadise-i Cedide/ Events at the Turkish-Romanian Court Arbitration”, 1928, in Darülfünun Hukuk Fakültesi Mecmuası/ Darülfünun Journal of the Faculty of Law, 6. Yıl/year, Sayı/no. 36, Mayıs-Haziran/May-June, İstanbul: Yeni Matbaa, pp.1210-1228.

Domain literature
Emin Ali Bey, 1926, “Lozan Ahidnamesine Göre Muhtelit Hakim Mahkemeleri/ Various Courts of Judges according to the Lausanne Treaty”, Hukuki Bilgiler Mecmuası/Legal Information Journal” Kanunuevvel/December, Yıl: 1, Sayı/no. 4.
Esirgen Örsten Seda, 2019, “Lozan’ın Ardından Başlayan Bir Hukuki Mücadele: Karma Hakem Mahkemeleri/ A Legal Struggle After Lausanne: Mixed Arbitration Courts”, Avrasya İncelemeleri Dergisi, no. VIII/2 (2019): pp. 309-338.
Şimşir, Bilal, 1994, Lozan Telgrafları/Lausanne Telegrams II (Şubat-Ağustos/February-August 1923), Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi/Turkish History Association PublishingHouse.

Periodicals
Milliyet Gazetesi, 1928, 22 Temmuz/July.
Resmi Ceride (Resmi Gazete)/Official Gazette, 1926, Yıl 4, No. 299, 16 Şubat/February, pp.984-986.
Resmi Ceride/Official Gazette, 1926, Yıl/year 4, No. 300, 17 Şubat/February, pp.988-990.
Resmi Ceride/Official Gazette, 1926, Yıl 4, No. 301, 18 Şubat/February, pp.993-994.
Resmi Ceride/Official Gazette, 1926, Yıl 4, No. 302, 20 Şubat/February, pp.997-998.
Resmi Ceride/Official Gazette, 1926, Yıl 4, No. 303, 21 Şubat/February, pp.1000-1002.
Resmi Ceride/Official Gazette, 1926, Yıl 4, No. 304, 22 Şubat/February, pp.1005-1006.
Resmi Ceride/Official Gazette, 1926, Yıl 4, No. 305, 23 Şubat/February, pp.1009-1010.
Resmi Ceride/Official Gazette,1926, Yıl 4, No. 308, 27 Şubat/February, pp.1021-1022.

Online sources
http://sam.baskent.edu.tr/belge/Lausanne_ENG.pdf
https://www.mfa.gov.tr/lausanne-peace-treaty-vi_-convention-concerning-the-exchange-of-greek-and-turkish-populations-signed-at-lausanne_.en.mfa
Published
2021-09-28
Section
Danubian Economy and Legislation