Peacebuilding in a Disparate Federation: Nigeria’s Experience

  • Adeleke Adegbami Olabisi Onabanjo University
Keywords: Peacebuilding; ethnicity; conflict; development; media

Abstract

Conflict is an unavoidable part of human society, while peace is unarguably the most treasured asset of man. Nigeria has continued to have its fair share of challenges to peace, as the country continues to encounter various shattering conflict situations. Given the above, the study analyses peacebuilding in a disparate federation like Nigeria. The sources of data for the study were secondary data and the author's observation. The study revealed that the pattern of emergency of Nigeria into nationhood, whereby the country was forcibly incorporated into a nation by the British imperialist habitually breed conflict. The study further identified issues such as – ethnicity, the control of natural resources; the creation of states/ local governments and the citing of their administrative headquarters as a threat to peace in Nigeria. Other issues include - land ownership, boundaries, and land demarcation disputes and land inheritance problems; religious intolerance; and youth unemployment/ restiveness. Furthermore, the study revealed stakeholders for peacebuilding to include - political actors; state actors; military/security actors; economic entrepreneurs/business actors; civil society/ Non-Governmental Organisations; international/regional organisations; the media; professional groups; religious groups; and traditional institutions. The study also found that the successive government in Nigeria has not been adequately engaged and catered for the needs of her youth populations. This has repeatedly threatened the nation's security as youth are readily available for recruitment into armed and insurgent groups. The study concluded that for national cohesion and integration, socio-economic, as well as political development peace must be maintained.

Author Biography

Adeleke Adegbami, Olabisi Onabanjo University

Department of Public Administration

References

Abubakar, M. S. (2011). ‘Islam and Peace Building in West Africa’. Being a Lecture Delivered by His Eminence, Dr. Muhammad Sa’ad Abubakar III, the Sultan of Sokoto at Harvard University in the United States of America on October 3, 2011.

Ahamefule, U. (2013). How to Attain Peace and Security in Nigeria. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from http://www.africanspotlight.com.

Akpuru-Aja (2007). Basic Concepts, Issues and Strategies of Peace and Conflict Resolution (Nigerian-African Conflict Case Studies). Enugu: Keny and Brother Enterprises.

Alliance for Peacebuilding (2013). What is Peacebuilding? Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://www.cfr.org/international-organizations-and-alliances/united-nations-nation-building/p7755

Bakut, B. T. (2006). The Environment, Peace, and Conflict in Africa, in Best, S. G. (ed.) Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

Barnett, M., Kim, H., O’Donnell, M. and Sitea, L. (2007). Peacebuilding: What Is in a Name? Global Governance 13, pp. 35– 58.

Boutros, B (1995). An Agenda for Peace. New York: United Nations.

Brahimi, L. (2000). Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, United Nations Document A/55/305 – S/2000/809. New York: United Nations.

Brinkmann, C. (2006). Steps for Peace Working Manual for Peace Building and Conflict Management. Kabul: German Development Service (Deutscher Entwicklungsdienst, DED)

Chapter VIII. Consideration of Questions under the Responsibility of the Security Council for the Maintenance of International Peace and Security. Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/8992/Chapter%208/GENERAL%20ISSUES/Item%2028_SC%20respons%20in%20maint%20IPS.pdf

Cockayne, J., Mikulaschek, C. and Perry, C. (2010). The United Nations Security Council and Civil War: First Insights from a New Dataset. New York: International Peace Institute.

Cortright, D. (n.d.). Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas. London: Cambridge University Press.

Curtis, D. (2012). The Contested Politics of Peacebuilding in Africa’ in Curtis, D. and Dzinesa, G. A. (eds). Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa. Ohio: Ohio University Press.

Curtis, D. and Dzinesa, G. A. (2012). Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa. Ohio: Ohio University Press.

Dawson, G. (2004). Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding, and Peacemaking: Concepts, Complications, and Canada’s Role. Toronto: Parliamentary Research Branch Library of Parliament

Dobbins, J. (2003). Nation-Building: the Inescapable Responsibility of the World’s Only Superpower. Retrieved November 8, 2016, from https://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/summer2003/nation1.html.

Doyle, M. W., and Sambanis, N. (1999). Building Peace: Challenges and Strategies after Civil War. Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://www.chs.ubc.ca/srilanka/PDFs/Building%20peacechallenges%20and%20strategies.pdf

Eloma, U. and Eloma, E. (2014). Peace Building Mechanism: Alternative to Dispute Resolution. A Study of Calabar, Nigeria. Journal of Research & Method in Education, Volume 4, Issue 3 Ver. III, pp. 15-21.

Engdaw, T. Y. (2013). Towards a Common Strategy for a Culture of Peace in Africa. Addis Ababa: Institute for Peace and Security Studies (IPSS) Addis Ababa University and Association of Senates, Shoora and Equivalent Councils in Africa and the Arab World.

Fernández-Dols, J., Hurtado-de-Mendoza, A. and Jiménez-de-Lucas, I. (2004). Culture of Peace: An Alternative Definition and Its Measurement. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 10(2), pp. 117–124.
Foundation Culture of Peace (2011). The Development of Culture of Peace and Non-Violence (1988-2010). Report by Federico Mayor at the end of the United Nations International Decade on a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World (2001-2010). Barcelona: Foundation for a Culture of Peace.

Francis, J. D. (2006). Peace and Conflict Studies: An African Overview of Basic Concepts, in Best, S. G. (ed.) Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

Howard, M. (1987). ‘Peace Studies: The Hard Questions’, in E. Kaye (ed.) Peace Studies: The Hard Questions: Oxford Peace Lectures 1984-5, London: Rex Collings.

Ibeanu, O. (2006). Conceptualising Peace, in Best, S. G. (ed.) Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

International Association for Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (2007). Introduction to Peace Building. Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://www.peacebuildinginitiative.org/index702a.html?pageId=1767

Johan, G. (1976). Three Approaches to Peace: Peacekeeping, Peacemaking, and Peacebuilding," in Peace, War and Defense: Essays in Peace Research, Vol. II (Copenhagen: Christian Ejlers, 1976), pp. 297-298.

Kumaratunga, C. (2011). The Absence of War is Not Peace. Virginia: University of Virginia.


Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.


Maiese, M. (2003). The Conflict Management Toolkit: Approaches. The Conflict Management Program. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University.

Matsuo, M. (n.d.). Concept of Peace in Peace Studies: A Short Historical Sketch. Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://home.hiroshimau.ac.jp/heiwa/Pub/E20/conceptofpeace.pdf

Morris, C. (2013). What is Peacebuilding? One Definition. Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://www.peacemakers.ca/publications/peacebuildingdefinition.html

Opone, P. O. (2014). Resource Control or Terrorism: Competing Perspectives on the Conflict in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Dissertation Submitted in Full Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Public Policy and Administration, Walden University College of Social and Behavioral Sciences.
Peacebuilding Initiatives (n.d.). History. Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://www.peacebuildinginitiative.org/index34ac.html

UN (2005). What is Peacebuilding? Retrieved November 8, 2016, from http://www.unpbf.org/application-guidelines/what-is-peacebuilding/

UNESCO (2013). UNESCO’s Programme of Action Culture of Peace and Non-Violence: A Vision in Action. France: UNESCO.

Uzuegbunam, A. O. (2013). Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Conflict and Peace Building in Nigeria. Open Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 3, No.1 A, pp. 207-212.

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, 1993 Edition. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Published
2020-06-15
Section
Articles