‘Security’ and ‘Crisis’ in Populist Discourse -a brief exploratory study-

Authors

  • Alexandra Oanca National University of Political Studies and Public Administration

Keywords:

outer space; globalization; international relations; technology; security

Abstract

Prior to the COVID pandemic and the more recent conflict in Ukraine, populist parties in the European Union enjoyed a growing popularity among voters. Some of them became part of government coalitions or held executive power alone. This article aims to provide a comparison of six populist parties’ narratives on security, based on content analysis of official English-language party documents. Quantitative findings indicate some clear differences between left and right-wing populist parties in terms of references to key words “security” and “crisis”. A qualitative exploration of collocations further suggests which security sectors - societal, military, political, economic, or environmental - these parties tend to prioritize.

References

Andor, László. 2000. Hungary on the road to the European Union: transition in blue. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Antal, Attila. 2019. The Rise of Hungarian Populism: State Autocracy and the Orbán Regime. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

Baldwin, David A. 1997.“The concept of security.” Review of international studies, 23(1):.5-26.

https://cte.univ-setif2.dz/moodle/pluginfile.php/5457/mod_resource/content/3/Baldwin%20%281997%29%20The%20Concept%20of%20Security.pdf

Balfour, Rosa et al. 2019. “Divide and obstruct: Populist parties and EU foreign policy”. German Marshall Fund of the United States.

https://www.gmfus.org/publications/divide-and-obstruct-populist-parties-and-eu-foreign-policy

Berezin, Mabel. 2009. Illiberal Politics in Neoliberal Times: Culture, Security, and Populism in the New Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Boros, Tamás, Maria Freitas, Tibor Kadlót & Ernst Stetter. 2016. “The State of Populism in Europe”. FEPS and Policy Solutions.

https://www.politico.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/state_of_populism_in_europe_in_2016.pdf

Boros, Tamás, Maria Freitas, Gergely Laki & Gábor Győri. 2020. “The state of populism in Europe 2020.” FEPS and Policy Solutions. https://euagenda.eu/upload/publications/state_of_populism_in_europe_2020_final.pdf.pdf

Brubaker, Rogers. 2017. “Why populism?”. Theory and Society 46 (5): 357–385.

https://p-library2.s3.filebase.com/books/38ad52dc7cc528d0e41c170b8a9294f4.pdf

Buzan, Barry, 1991. “New patterns of global security in the twenty-first century”. International affairs, 67 (3): 431–451.

Buzan, Barry. 2008. People, states and fear: an agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era. Ecpr Press.

Buzan, Barry & Lene Hansen. 2009. The Evolution of International Security Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver & Jaap de Wilde. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder – London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Buzogány, Aron. 2017. “Illiberal democracy in Hungary: authoritarian diffusion or domestic causation?”. Democratization, 24 (7): 1307–1325.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Aron-Buzogany/publication/317350148_Illiberal_democracy_in_Hungary_authoritarian_diffusion_or_domestic_causation/links/5a293ccda6fdcc8e867334ac/Illiberal-democracy-in-Hungary-authoritarian-diffusion-or-domestic-causation.pdf

De Spiegeleire, Stephan, Clarissa Skinner & Tim Sweijs. 2017. The Rise of Populist Sovereignism: What It Is, Where It Comes From, and What It Means for International Security and Defense. The Hague: The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies.

Dinas E, K. Matakos, D. Xefteris & D. Hangartner. 2019. “Waking up the golden dawn: Does exposure to the refugee crisis increase support for extreme-right parties?” Political Anal. 27: 244–54.

Eiermann, Martin, Yascha Mounk & Limor Gultchin. 2017. “European populism: Trends, threats and future prospects”. Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, disponibil la: https://institute.global/policy/european-populism-trends-threats-and-future-prospects

Exadaktylos, Theofanis. 2020. “Populism in Foreign Policy: Shifting Paradigms in Greek Political Parties”. Marmara Üniversitesi Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü Avrupa Araştırmaları Dergisi 28 (2): 179–201.

https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1586492

Fillingham, Lydia Alix. 1993. Foucault for beginners. New York: Writers and Readers Publishing.

Font, Nuria, Paolo Graziano & Myrto Tsakatika. 2021. “Varieties of inclusionary populism? SYRIZA, Podemos and the Five Star Movement”. Government and Opposition, 56 (1): 163–183. https://eprints.gla.ac.uk/184538/7/184538.pdf

Gagnon, Jean-Paul, Emily Beausoleil, Kyong-Min Son, Cleve Arguelles, Pierrick Chalaye & Callum N. Johnston. 2018. “What is populism? Who is the populist?: A state of the field review (2008-2018)”. Democratic Theory 5 (2): vi–xxvi.

https://www.berghahnjournals.com/downloadpdf/journals/democratic-theory/5/2/dt050201.xml

Gidron, Noam & Bart Bonikowski. 2013. “Varieties of Populism: Literature Review and Research Agenda”. Weatherhead Working Paper Series 13 (4). https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/gidron_bonikowski_populismlitreview_2013.pdf

Hooghe, L & G. Marks 2018. “Cleavage theory meets Europe’s crises: Lipset, Rokkan, and the transnational cleavage”. J. Eur. Public Policy 25: 109–35

https://garymarks.web.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/13018/2018/09/Hooghe-Marks-Cleavage-theory-meets-Europes-crises_-Lipset-Rokkan-and-the-transnational-cleavage.pdf

Hutter, S, H. Kriesi & G.Vidal 2018. “Old versus new politics: the political spaces in Southern Europe in times of crises”. Party Politics 24: 10–22

https://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/50246/Hutter_Hanspeter_Vidal_2018postprint.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

Huysmans, Jef. 1998. “Security! What do you mean? From concept to thick signifier.” European journal of international relations, 4 (2): 226–255.

Jakobson, M., Ilze Balcere, Oudekki Loone, Anu Nurk, Tõnis Saarts, and Rasa Zakeviciute. 2012. “Populism in the Baltic States.” Tallinn University.

https://oef.org.ee/fifileadmin/media/valjaanded/uuringud/Populism_research_report.pdf

Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira, Paul A. Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo & Pierre Ostiguy, ed. 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Populism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kantola, Johanna, and Emanuela Lombardo. 2019. “Populism and feminist politics: The cases of Finland and Spain.” European Journal of Political Research, 58 (4): 1108-1128.

https://ejpr.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1475-6765.12333

Kitschelt, H. 2018. “Party systems and radical right-wing parties”. In The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right, ed. J. Rydgren. Oxford-UK: Oxford University Press.

Krause, Keith & Michael C. Williams. 1996. “Broadening the Agenda of Security Studies: Politics and Methods”. Mershon International Studies Review 40 (2): 229–254.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Keith-Krause/publication/237611755_Broadening_the_Agenda_of_Security_Studies_Politics_and_Methods/links/5624b7ee08ae70315b5dc144/Broadening-the-Agenda-of-Security-Studies-Politics-and-Methods.pdf

Knight, Robert. 1992. “Haider, the freedom party and the extreme right in Austria.”Parliamentary Affairs, 45 (3), 285–299.

Lazaridis, Gabriella & Giovanna Campani, ed. 2016. Understanding the Populist Shift: Othering in a Europe in Crisis. London – New York: Routledge.

Liang, Christina Schori, ed. 2007. Europe for the Europeans: The Foreign and Security Policy of the Populist Radical Right. Aldershot – Burlington: Ashgate.

Lugosi, Nicole V. T. 2018. “Radical right framing of social policy in Hungary: between nationalism and populism.” Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy, 34 (3): 210–233.

Mudde, Cas. 2004. “The Populist Zeitgeist”. Government and Opposition 39 (4): 541–563.

Mudde, Cas. 2016. SYRIZA: The Failure of the Populist Promise. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mudde, Cas & Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. 2017. Populism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Noury, Abdul & Gerard Roland. 2020. “Identity Politics and Populism in Europe”. Annual Review of Political Science 23: 421–439.

https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-polisci-050718-033542

Potter, Jonathan. 1996. Representing reality: Discourse, rhetoric and social construction. Sage.

Riedlsperger, Max. 1998. “The Freedom Party of Austria: From protest to radical right populism.” In The new politics of the Right: Neo-populist parties and movements in established democracies, ed. Hans-Georg Betz & Stefan Immerfall, 27–44. New York: St. Martins Press.

Rooduijn, Matthijs & Teun Pauwels. 2011. “Measuring populism: Comparing two methods of content analysis.” West European Politics 34 (6): 1272–1283.

Smith, Steve. 2006. “The Concept of Security in a Globalized World.” In Globalization and Conflict. National Security in a ‘New’ Strategic Era, ed. Robert G. Patman, 33–55. Routledge.

Stanley, Ben. 2017. “Populism in central and Eastern Europe”. In The Oxford Handbook of Populism, ed. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul A. Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo & Pierre Ostiguy, 140–60. New York: Oxford University Press.

Taggart, Paul. 2017. “Populism in Western Europe”. In The Oxford Handbook of Populism, ed. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul A. Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo & Pierre Ostiguy, 248–263. New York: Oxford University Press.

Taggart, Paul, and Andrea L.P. Pirro. 2021. “European populism before the pandemic: ideology, Euroscepticism, electoral performance, and government participation of 63 parties in 30 countries.” Italian Political Science Review/Rivista Italiana Di Scienza Politica 53 (3): 1–24.

Tsakatika, Myrto. 2016. “SYRIZA’s electoral rise in Greece: Protest, trust and the art of political manipulation.” South European Society and Politics, 21 (4): 519–540.

https://eprints.gla.ac.uk/128645/7/128645.pdf

Wæver, Ole. 2004. “Aberystwyth Paris: New Schools in Security Theory and Their Origins Between Core and Periphery”. In annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Montreal (No. s 8).

http://www.scribd.com/doc/40010349/Ole-Waever-Aberystwyth-Paris-en-New-Schools-in-Security-Theory-and-Their-Origins-Between-Core-and-Periphery

Weyland, Kurt. 2001. “Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics”. Comparative Politics 34 (1): 1–22.

Wike, Richard et al. 2019. “European Public Opinion Three Decades After the Fall of Communism”. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2019/10/15/european-public-opinion-three-decades-after-the-fall-of-communism/

Wodak, Ruth. 2015. The politics of fear: What right-wing populist discourses mean. London: Sage.

Wojczewski, Thorsten. 2020. “ ‘Enemies of the people’: Populism and the politics of (in) security”. European Journal of International Security 5 (1): 5–24.

https://kclpure.kcl.ac.uk/portal/files/118418539/Enemies_of_the_People_Populism_WOJCZEWSKI_Acc15Sept2019Epub29Oct2019_GREEN_AAM.pdf

Wolfers, Arnold. 1962. “National Security as an Ambiguous Symbol”. In Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics, 147–165. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Downloads

Published

2022-08-29

Issue

Section

Articles