The Military in Nigerian Politics
Keywords:Nigeria, Military, Politics, Government
The colonial system adopted by British colonialists was a composition that kindled discord among Nigerians, but with the false notion of oneness. The consequence of this composition was evident in high levels of tribal sentiments and stratification, and despite the fact that these challenges existed in the pre-independent Nigeria, it had become increasingly evident since the first half-decade of post-independent Nigeria. Therefore, independence and the flagging of the republic in 1960 and 1963 respectively, greeted Nigeria with more complex puzzles to solve. Subsequently, the military forced its way into the political frame of Nigeria through a coup. This paper (Military in Nigerian Politics,) therefore seeks to provide analysis of military regimes through historical and descriptive lenses. It employs secondary data sources in achieving this objective. In the work, it could be observed that although military regime recorded some successes, it was however crazed with problems of various magnitudes such as abuse of human rights, economic decline and corruption among others. This military configuration naturally provoked international condemnation which led to its decline and final return to democracy.
Abdulrahman, S.O. and Mang, H.G. (2017). The Nigerian Army as a Product of its Colonial History: Problems of Re-building Cohesion for an Army in Transition. International Affairs and Global Strategy.
Abubakar, S. (2008). The Challenges of Nation-building: Nigeria, which Way Forward? In Ogbogbo and Okpeh (eds) Interrogating Contemporary Africa: Dike Memorial Lectures, 1999-2007. Ibadan: Historical Society of Nigeria. pp. 26-31.
Achebe, C. (1983). The Trouble with Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Corporation Limited.
Adebisi, M.A. (2013). History and Development of Industrial Relations in Nigeria: Hybridity of Western Models Versus Military Interventionism Culture. Rome: Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 4(14). pp. 687-693.
Adekanye, J.B. (2008). Military Organization in Multiethnically Segmented Societies - A Comparative Study. Ibadan: Ababa Press Limited.
Adesina, R.A. (1999). Military in Politics: Comprehensive Strategies for Ending Military Rule in Africa Nigeria. Heinemann Educational Books.
Afenaga, H. (1980, January 14). Democracy Consolidates: Progress Report. Lagos: Daily Times Publishers. p. 8.
Agbese, D. (2000). Fellow Nigerians: Turning Points in the Political History of Nigeria. Ibadan: Umbrella Books.
Ajayi, A.I. (2013). Military Regimes and Nation Building in Nigeria, 1966-1999. African Journal of History and Culture. Vol. 5(7). pp. 139-142.
Ake, C. (1994). Democratization of Disempowerment in Africa. Lagos: Malthouse Press Limited.
Araba, M.A. (1990). Let’s Separate: The Story of the Nigerian Civil War. Author House Publisher.
Aremu, J.O. and Osadola, O.S. (2018). The Organization of African Unity and its Mediatory Role in the Nigeria Civil War: A Historical Assessment. International Journal of Research. Vol. 5(15). pp. 214-238.
Arikpo, O. (1967). Development of Modern Nigeria. Maryland: Penguin War Books.
Arnold-Baker, C. (2001). The Companion to British History. NY: Routledge.
Babatola, J.A. (2008). Will in the Wind (Biography of Chief J.E. Babatola). Lagos: Samadek.
Babatola, J.T. (2014). Politics and Power Struggles in Nigeria (1945-1999). Retrieved November 10, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317068012
Babawale, T. (1993). Neo-colonial Dependency and Crisis in Nigeria. Nigerian Forum.
Balogun, O. (1973). The Tragic Years: Nigeria in Crisis 1966 – 1970. Benin City: Ethiope Publishing Corporation.
Bamgboye, P.O. (2014). The Military and Socio-economic Development in Nigeria (1983 – 1999): A Critical Appraisal. Rome: Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 5(23). pp. 2340-2344.
Barrett, J. (1976). The Rank and File of the Colonial Army in Nigeria, 1914–18. The Journal of Modern African Studies. Vol. 15(1). pp. 105-113.
Bello, A.A. (2011). Nigerian Government and Politics I. Lagos: National Open University of Nigeria.
Bevan, D., Collier, P. & Gunning, J.W. (1999). The Po¬litical Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth: Nigeria and Indonesia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brown, G.M. (2013). Nigerian Political System: An Analysis. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. Vol. 3(10). pp.172-179.
Brown, P.Z. (2014). The Military and Internal Security in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects. Rome: Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 5(27). pp. 1301-1307.
Crowder, M. (1980). The Story of Nigeria. London: Faber & Faber.
Diamond, L. (1999). Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diamond, L., Kirk-Greene, A. & Oyediran, O. (1997). Transition Without End: Nigeria Politics and Civil Society Under Babangida. Ibadan: Vintage Publishers.
Dudley, B. (1982). Introduction to Nigerian Government and Politics. Macmillan Nigeria.
Edeh, H. and Ikechukwu, U.M. (2014). Military and Politics: Understanding the Theoretical Underpinnings of Military Incursion in Third World Politics. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 5(20). pp. 2047-2058.
Edie, C.J. (2003). Politics in Africa: A New Beginning. Belmont: Wadsworth/Thomason Learning.
Ejiogu, E. (2011). Colonial Army Recruitment Patterns and Post-colonial Military Coups D’état in Africa: The Case of Nigeria, 1966-1993. Sci.Mil.
Ejoor, D. (1993, September 12). How can Nigeria Survive without Coups? The Guardian. p. 11.
Ekele, S. (2011). Issues and Problems of Military and Politics in Africa. Nairobi: Musuve Publishing Company.
Emenyeonu, B.N. (2013). Military Intervention in Nigerian Politics: What has the Press got to do with it? University of Leicester: ProQuest LLC.
Eminue, O. (2006). Military in Politics. Uyo: Soulmate Press and Publishers.
Eshikena, J. (2012). Nigerian Government and Politics. Lagos: Fortran Press Limited.
Falola, T. (2001). Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Falola, T. and Ihonvbere, J.O. (1985). The Rise and Fall of Nigeria’s Second Republic, 1979-1983. London: Zed Books.
Flint, J. (1960). Sir George Goldie and the Making of Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press.
Frank, E.O. and Ukpere, W.I. (2012). The Impact of Military Rule on Democracy in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 33(3). pp. 285-292.
Gambari, I. (1995). Nigeria Today and the Year 2000. Emwal Centre for Political and Economic Research Journal. Vol. 3(1). pp. 30-33.
George, O.J., Amujo, O.C, & Cornelius, N. (2012). Military Intervention in the Nigerian Politics and its Impact on the Development of Managerial Elite: 1966-1979. Canadian Social Science. Vol. 8(6). pp. 45-53.
Hariman, T. (2006). Is there a Future for Democracy in Nigeria? Oxford University: Department of International Development.
Haruna, Y. (1988). The Ubiquity of Stability on the Fragility of the Theories of Instability in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria’s Second Republic Examined. In U.B. Uba (ed) Problems and Prospects. Nsukka: Northeastern Political Science Association. pp. 79-91.
Horowitz, D. (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ihonvbere, J. (1991). A Critical Evaluation of the Failed 1990 Coup in Nigeria. The Journal of Modem African Studies. Vol. 29(4). pp. 605-614.
Ihonvbere, J. and Vaughan, O. (1995). Nigeria: Democracy and Civil Society. In J. Wiseman (ed) Why is the Experience of Democracy in African States so Varied? London: Routledge. pp. 195-202.
Ikim, U. (1993, July, 5). What now? Will Babangida’s New Game Plan Mollify US, Britain over the Transition Programme. Newswatch. p. 9.
Isaac, A.A. (2013). Military Regimes and Nation Building in Nigeria, 1966-1999. African Journal of History and Culture. Vol. 5(7). pp. 138-142.
Jackson, A. (2007). Nigeria: A Security Overview. The Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs. Vol. 96(392). pp. 588-589.
Jemibewon, D.M. (1998). The Military Rule, Law and Society. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.
Kirk-Greene, A. (1980). Damnosa Hereditas: Ethnic Ranking and the Martial Races Imperative in Africa. Ethnic and Racial Studies. Vol. 3(4). pp. 393-414.
Luckham, R. (1971). The Nigerian Military: A Sociological Analysis of Authority and Revolt, 1960-1967. African Stud¬ies Series.
Michael, C. (1980). The Story of Nigeria. London: Faber & Faber.
Muffet, D. (1982). Let Truth be Told. Zaria: Hudahuda Publishing Company.
Muhammad, M. (2014). Military and Politics in Nigeria. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319464216
Muhammadu, T. and Haruna, M. (1981). The Civil War. In Oyediran (ed) Nigerian Government and Politics Under Military Rule, 1966-1979. London: Macmillan Press Limited. pp. 10-17.
New Nigerian (1966, January 20). Thursday.
Obiagwu, E. (1993, August 21). Canada Applies Sanctions, Asks Babangida to Honour Pledge. Guardian. p. 15.
Obioha, E.E. (2016). Role of the Military in Democratic Transitions and Succession in Nigeria. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies. Vol. 8(1). pp. 251-268.
Odinkalu, A.C. (2001). The Management of Transition to Civil Rule by the Military in Nigeria (1966-1996). In K. Amuwo et al. (eds) Nigeria During the Abacha Years (1993-1998): The Domestic and International Politics of Democratization. Ibadan: Institution Fancies de Recheuhe en Afrique. pp. 65-67.
Olagunju, T., Jinadu, A. & Oyovbiare, S. (1993). Transition to Democracy in Nigeria (1985-1993). Ibadan: Safari Books and Spectrum Books Limited.
Olufemi, K. (1998). The Role of Politics in Human (Under) Development in Nigeria. In D. Kolawole (ed) Issues in Nigerian Government and Politics. Ibadan: Dekaal. pp. 91-93.
Oluleye, J.J. (1985). Military Leadership in Nigeria 1966-1979. Ibadan: University Press.
Osaghae, E.E. and Suberu, R.T. (2005). A History of Identities, Violence, and Stability in Nigeria. Oxford: Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity.
Osoba, S. (1977). The Nigerian Power Elite: 1952 – 1965. In P. Gutkind and P. Waterman (eds) African Social Studies. London: Heinemann. pp. 371-386.
Otoghagua, E. (2011). Trends and Contemporary Issues in Regimes of Nigerian Heads of State (4th edition). Benin City: Author.
Oyediran, O. (ed). (1979). Nigerian Government & Politics Under Military Rule 1966-1979. London: Macmillan Press Limited.
Peter, O. and Samue, O.O. (2018). Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999. Ado Ekiti: Arts and Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 9(4). pp. 1-6.
Rodney, W. (1974). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington DC: Howard University Press.
Shively, W.P. (2003). Power and Choice: An Introduction to Political Science (8th edition). NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Smith, (1974). The Lagos Consulate, 1851–1861: An Outline. The Journal of African History. Vol. 15(03). pp. 393.
Toyin, O.S. (2015). The Impact of Military Coup D’état on Political Development in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science. Vol. 6(10). pp. 194-202.
Ukpabi, S. (1987). Mercantile Soldiers in Nigerian History: A History of the Royal Niger Company Army. Zaria: Gaskiya Corpo¬ration.
Uzodinma, A.O. (2015). From Military Rule to Civil Rule: A Political Economy of Gerontocratic Metamorphosis in Nigeria. International Affairs and Global Strategy.
The author fully assumes the content originality and the holograph signature makes him responsible in case of trial.